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Full text of "Challenges of forestry"




HUME LIBRARY 

INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

Gainesville 





Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 






http://archive.org/details/challengesofforeOOunse 









THE CHALLENGES 
OF FORESTRY 

A Compilation of the Addresses and Technical Papers 

Presented on the Occasion of the College's 

Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration, April 12-14, 1961 







itate University 
ALLEGE OF FORESTRY 
at Syracuse University 







HUME LIBRARY 



INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES 

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

Gainesville 




This publication is available at no charge from the Department of Forest 
Extension, State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University, Syracuse 10, 
New York. A list of other publications available from the College may be 
obtained on request. 2M 12/61 



THE CHALLENGES 
OF FORESTRY 



The Addresses and Technical Papers 

Presented on the Occasion of the College's 

Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration, April 12-1 A, 1961 



Compiled by 
Richard E. Pentoney 

Associate Professor of Wood Products Engineering 

and 

William L. Webb 

Professor of Forest Zoology 



State University College of Forestry 
at Syracuse University — 1961 



Ml 

CULTURAL 
IHBRAiW 



Foreword 

The State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University was founded in 
1911. The intervening fifty years have been replete with significant developments 
both for this college and for the field of forestry. Important as these have been 
we can anticipate that the next fifty years will bring even greater changes. 

Forestry must expand in breadth to develop sound basic principles for multiple 
use management. It must also be alert to new special uses of forest land that an 
expanding population and technology will impose upon it. Not the least of 
these will be developing new patterns for suburbia, with forest as an integral 
part of the ground plan. 

Forestry must grow in depth as it reaches out to incorporate in its principles 
and practices the new discoveries in related physical, biological, and social 
sciences. The scientific resources of the world are expanding at an exponential 
rate. To grasp the new knowledge and to bring it to bear on forest land resources 
and their use are the Challenges of Forestry in the decades ahead. 

On April 13, 1961, as a part of the celebration of this college's first fifty years, 
a group of leaders in education, research, government, and industry presented 
their views on the Challenges of Forestry. Through publication, their views are 
being made available to all foresters and workers in related science as a stimulus 
to their thinking on progress in the future. 

June 8, 1961 

Hardy L. Shirley, Dean 



Contents 

PAGE 

Foreword 3 

Part One — Challenges in World Forestry 

Eino A. Saari 9 

Part Two — Education 

Challenges in Forestry Education — Henry J. Vaux 19 

Some Notes on Professional Education — Thomas H. Hamilton 29 

Reaching Toward Our Future — Hardy L. Shirley 36 

Accent on Quality— William P. Tolley 41 

Part Three — Challenges in the Use of Forest Resources 

Challenges in Forest Land Use — Richard E. McArdle 47 

Future Demands for Recreation and Space — Laurance S. Rockefeller 54 

The Future Demand for Wood— William A. Duerr 61 

Future Demands for Water— Harold G. Wilm 69 

Future Demands for Wildlife and Fishing — John L. Buckley 76 

Part Four — Challenges in Forest Production 

Physiological Implications — Theodore T. Kozlowski 91 

Silvicultural Considerations — Leon S. Minckler 125 

Soils Considerations — Donald P. White 133 

Management Considerations — Theodore W. Earle 143 

Part Five — Challenges of New Wood Uses 

Challenges in the Use of Wood — Howard W. Morgan 153 

The Role of Basic Research — James S. Bethel 162 

Wood Product Development — Herbert B. McKean 168 

Product Promotion and Marketing — Arthur Lahey 191 

Part Six — Challenges in Fibers and Molecules 

Pulping Around the World— Frank T. Peterson 203 

Trends and Developments in Cellulose Chemistry — Herman F. Mark 216 

Research Needs in the Pulp and Paper Industry — Joseph L. McCarthy 225 



PART ONE 

CHALLENGES IN WORLD FORESTRY 






Challenges in World Forestry 

Eino A. Saari 

Professor of Forestry Economics 
University of Helsinki 



The invitation to speak to you at this memorable celebration of the Fiftieth 
Anniversary of the State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University 
is a great honor for me. This site of higher learning in forestry is not only known 
for being the biggest school of forestry in the western world but also is well 
known for its high standard of scientific and professional quality, its staff of 
high reputation, its buildings with modern equipment, and for talented far- 
sighted leadership in the person of its Dean, a world-famous forestry educator 
and scientist. 

The Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of 
Helsinki in Finland, having been invited to attend this celebration, was unfor- 
tunately not able to come. He together with all our faculty members have asked 
me to bring to your School, its leader, the alumni and the students their respectful 
greetings and their sincere wishes for an illustrious future development. 

On this occasion I also want to express our gratitude to you for your kindness 
in having accepted here several of our graduates for further studies. All of them 
have been satisfied with their stay at this College of Forestry. I have been able 
to find after their return to Finland that the time spent here has given them 
valuable new ideas and improved possibilities for their further scientific or pro- 
fessional development. I bring to you also their sincere thanks and congratulations. 
Your kind invitation to me I understand as an act of friendship toward a 
small country with many natural, historical and geographical handicaps, a country 
where forestry plays a more important role than in any other country in the 
world, a country that highly esteems the friendship of your great union, a small 
country that only with utmost efforts and sacrifices has been able to conserve its 
liberty and independence in this disturbed time. 

When I last met your Dean Shirley he suggested that I speak on the topic, 
"Challenges in World Forestry." I must have been thoughtless in accepting it. 
Starting my preparations for this visit to America I began to think what World 
Forestry actually means, and I found that it was not so clear and not so simple a 
concept. There are several excellent books about the forest resources of the world, 
some of the very best of them having been published in your country, like the 
well known book of Zon and Sparhawk in 1923 and A World Geography of 
Forest Resources in 1956. Rather complete statistics on world forests are pub- 
lished periodically by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations. Good publications on world forest resources have also appeared from 
other countries, i.e. Sweden, Finland, Germany, Russia, etc. 

9 



In this literature we can find rich information on forestry in different countries 
and statistical tables including figures for different countries and their totals for 
regions and the world. But in most cases, this is more a collection of pictures of 
different countries and figures for their totals than World Forestry. 

Let us suppose that we begin to study the national economy of a country. 
If we have a report of the economic activity of every individual and every business 
unit and if we calculate totals including information of all of them we still do 
not get a picture of the national economy, because it is something else than the 
totals of all individuals. There are so many interrelationships and common efforts 
that make the total something else or at least give it many features not noticeable 
in the diversified collection of individual reports. 

Having come so far I asked myself, whether we already now can speak of any 
World Forestry in the same kind of meaning as we study the national economy 
of a country. 

My answer was: perhaps it is still somewhat early. But there is, and there has 
been for a long time, a trend toward something we perhaps could call 
World Forestry. 

Even if we say that a collection of statistics and other information on the 
forestry of different countries in itself is not yet any World Forestry, as complete 
collections as possible are essential conditions for the studies of a complicated 
whole we could call World Forestry in the meaning given to these words here. 
These kinds of compilations are at present already complete enough so that it is 
easy to find material for studies in World Forestry. Particularly FAO has done a 
great deal to produce statistics and other information. The rapid development 
in this field has made possible and stimulated some important studies, where the 
interrelationship and the interdependence of different countries and ideas of 
world-wide cooperation already are obvious. 

Such studies are carried out partly by FAO alone, partly in collaboration with 
different organs of UNO and UNESCO. I may mention here European Timber 
Trends and Prospects 1933, World Pulp and Paper Resources and Prospects 1954 
World Demand for Paper to 1975, published in I960. These kinds of studies 
are being continued. In this connection I should like also to mention an excellent 
book by the Swedish professor Streyffert: The Future Supply of Timber in 
the World. ^ S J 

The idea of World Forestry has also begun to interest several Schools of 
Forestry, your College being among the first ones in this category. At the German 
National Institute for Forestry at Reinbek, near Hamburg, a course of study 
called World Forestry has for a long time had its place in the teaching and 
research program. I shall not try to make a complete list of other institutions 
with such programs. These are only a couple of examples. 

We all know that this growing interest in international cooperation and better 
understanding of the interdependence of all countries is not confined alone to 
forestry. Rather, forestry is developing according to the general trend in economics 
10 



and politics. It is unnecessary for this illustrious audience to tell the story of 
UNO and its specialized agencies and other occurrences in the same direction. 
The idea of international cooperation in forestry started at the end of the last 
century, first in research work. The International Union of Forest Research 
Organizations was already established before this century began. It still exists 
and is now in a state of progressive development. 

During more than half a century a series of larger and smaller international 
forestry congresses have been organized in different parts of the world. Among 
the early large ones were those held in Paris in 1901 and 1913. The Italians 
arranged a large international forestry congress in 1926 and called it the First 
World Forestry Congress. The next world-wide congress held in Hungary in 
1936 was called the Second. This wrong numbering of these congresses has been 
continued. The latest forestry congress having the name "Fifth World Forestry 
Congress" was, as you know, arranged with great success at Seattle last fall. The 
number of participants was roughly 2000, which is four or five times as many 
as at the earlier congresses of this series. The success of the Seattle congress proved 
that your organizing committee with the able leadership of your Chief Forester, 
Dr. McArdle, had accomplished an excellent job. The hospitality and the friendly 
attitude of your forest industries and the citizens of Seattle to Congress members 
and their families was unbounded. 

Such congresses have no authority to decide anything in world forestry. But 
they have a mighty influence among foresters from all parts of the world in the 
fact that they have a common responsibility, that they can help each other, and 
that continued cooperation is needed. 

An idea already discussed before the First World War was the necessity of a 
permanent world center for forestry. In the beginning some kind of a clearing 
house for the information coming from different countries was meant, but later 
in addition more significant work was planned for such an institution. The 
first attempt was made according to a resolution at the Rome Congress in 1926, 
mentioned before. A forestry bureau was established at the International Institute 
of Agriculture which had already been started in 1905. Initially, the agricultural 
people were more active than we foresters. 

This first permanent world forest center remained rather modest. It did not 
fulfill the purpose that was expected of it. The next World Forestry Congress at 
Budapest in 1936 decided, therefore, that a new international forest center should 
be established at Berlin in addition to that one in Rome. This new one started 

its activities in 1939- 

Unfortunately, the political situation in the world was at that time such that a 
large part of the world never started cooperation with this new center. In spite of 
the difficulties, the center accomplished a great deal of excellent work proving 
that it had a competent staff. Some time before 7 the end of the war, this inter- 
national forestry center was compelled to discontinue its activity, and it was never 
started again. 

11 



A new era in the history of world forestry began after the Second World War. 
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN was established in 1945 and' 
although the word "forest" cannot be seen in the name of the organization' 
there is a division for forestry and forest products. Soon after it was decided that 
the Rome and Berlin centers should be closed and FAO with the acquisition of 
their respective archives should carry on the work of both centers. 

I have already mentioned some features of the statistical and research work 
of FAO in forestry. In this connection I want to mention the principles of 
forest policy adopted by the FAO Conference in 1951, an interesting first attempt 
to formulate the basic ideas of forest policy for all countries in the world. The 
regional offices of FAO and its regional Forestry Commissions have proved to be 
an efficient stimulator of the idea of regional cooperation in forestry. A very 
important role in the international forestry cooperation has been played by the 
technical aid given to countries needing this kind of help for the development 
of their forestry and forest industries. The UN Fund for Technical Assistance 
and the Special UN Fund for Economic Development have been effective means 
in strengthening the understanding that foresters of all countries have duties 
of mutual assistance where it is needed. Planning of all this activity necessitates a 
close follow up study of what happens in the world and what effect the develop- 
ment in some countries may have on the development of other countries. 
The creation of such organizations as: 

OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation) and its successor 
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 
EFTA (European Free Trade Association) 
LAFTA (Latin America Free Trade Association) 
EEC (European Economic Community) 

COMECON (Economic Cooperation between the Peoples' Democracy) 
has been a vigorous stimulation of the idea of regional forestry. 

Particularly within OEEC and EEC have the discussions and studies of forestry 
and forest industries been active. In both of these organizations special for- 
forestry committees have been working. Especially interesting from the point of 
view of my topic have been the discussions in EEC concerning a common forestry 
and forest industries policy for all the member countries. EEC is a fairly intensive 
economic integration of six European states (Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxen- 
burg, France, Germany, Italy) which was established in 1957. It created amon* 
other things a common market for all the member countries. In these times it is 
necessary to coordinate the different sectors of the economic life as much as possi- 
ble. Forestry and forest industries cannot be left outside of this movement. In order 
to study these problems a special conference was arranged at Brussels in 1959 
Forestry experts of the six member countries discussed thoroughly the need and 
he possibilities of coordinated activities. The discussions led to the conclusion 
that a more or less uniform common forestry and forest industries policy is neces- 
sary for the total EEC area, which means many adjustments in the laws and 
12 



customs. A number of recommendations have already been made, and a per- 
manent forestry committee for the EEC was recommended. If the development 
will progress according to those lines we can speak of a real regional international 
forestry that is more than a collection of information on forestry in the six 
countries. 

Now we may ask: why is it necessary to discuss forestry as a world problem. 
Is it not sufficient that it is discussed and studied in each country as a national 

problem? 

Of course, a national study of forestry and a national forest policy is always 
necessary but in addition to that the international point of view is becoming 
more and more important. The development of world affairs seems to be such, 
that the countries are becoming more and more dependent on each other, particu- 
larly small countries. What other countries do will have their influence on our 
own country. This aspect appears to be more and more obvious in all economic 
life. It is the duty of our generation of foresters to take this phase of the world 
development seriously. 

The population of the world is increasing at a tempo that is alarmingly rapid. 
At the same time the pursuits for a higher standard of living are getting stronger 
and stronger even in countries where people so far have been more or less 
satisfied or at least accustomed to a modest and simple form of life. And the 
people do not want to wait any more until conditions slowly improve. The 
development must be forced. 

As forests are one of the great natural resources, and what is particularly 
important, a renewable resource, those who are experts in forestry and forest 
industries in the richer countries must help the poorer countries to utilize their 
forests in a more efficient way and in a way that at the same time will guarantee a 
sustained yield or, better still, a progressive increase in yield. 

We foresters are happy that forestry still has vast possibilities not yet utilized. 
The more knowledge that we have of the forests of the world the clearer it has 
become to us that much greater achievements may be expected from the forests 
for the benefit of the population in many parts of the world. 

The task given to us, foresters, is a gigantic task and a difficult one. But we 
must take the responsibility for its development. And we who are working as 
educators in the Schools of Forestry, must take our responsibility in training 
young men and women to become capable to solve the problems. 

The latest world forest inventory of FAO shows that forests occupy an area 
almost 40 per cent larger than the agricultural land. Of all the forest land, 
4.4 billion hectares, 38 per cent is still inacessible. If the inacessibility were 
only a technical question, it would be fairly easy to solve with modern technique. 
But it is also an economic problem; the timber must be extracted at reasonable 
cost. That makes it more complicated. But we are studying teaching and learning 
in order to be able to solve difficult problems. Each year the inaccessible area is 
diminishing, as forestry is being practiced in virgin areas. 

13 



Of the accessible forest land, so far only slightly more than half is in use. 
Particularly in South America and Africa large accessible areas are still waiting 
for loggers to come. This again means vast unused possibilities. 

Of forests in use only 40 per cent is managed with working plans, even in 
Europe with its old forestry practice not more than 50 per cent is managed. 
If we study the cutting practices, statistics indicate, that only 40 per cent can 
be considered good, 35 per cent fair, and 25 per cent poor. Europe, North 
America and the Pacific area are much above the average: 60-65 per cent of 
cuttings have been classified good. In Central and South America and in Africa 
with their vast forests only 10-15 per cent is classified as good. 

An intensive research work in Europe and North America has proved that 
even in conditions where good or fair forestry practices have already been in 
use a long time, the yield of the forests can be greatly increased, i.e. in Finland 
the total annual growth of our forests is 46 million m 3 without bark. It has 
been discussed and studied what it could be with our common species without 
fertilization with better silviculture. The best and most realistic calculations 
indicate that this figure could be raised to 67 million m 3 with the drainage of 
the best part of our large peat lands. Unfortunately it will be a long and difficult 
process, let us say at least fifty years, but the possibilities are there. 

Particularly in the tropical countries there is no use for a large part of the 
numerous species. With better silviculture these weed trees can be replaced by 
more valuable species, and in this way the useful output can be increased. 

So far only in some exceptional cases has fertilization been regularly used The 
tree breeders are developing better trees, etc. We seem to be far from realizing 
the full forest potential. 

A Swedish scientist, Paterson, recently made a calculation, published in 1958 
of the possible annual growth of the world forests. He came up to 18.9 billion 
m 3 . The actual corresponding figure in FAO statistics is 2.3 billion m 3 
Mr. Paterson's figure is amazing. I would not have mentioned it at all if his 
university had not taken it so seriously that the study was published as a 
Doctor's thesis. 

In my opinion the method in this investigation is wrong. The author has 
forgotten such factors as the difference between the yield of small sample plots 
and large areas and the human factor concerning the forest owners and loggers 
Where there is a great number of them the average will never be the maximum 
possibility allowed by biological factors and the progress will be slow 

In most cases it is not difficult to increase the feelings for a short period But 
we foresters are responsible that timber is coming out of the forests in a steady 
flow and in the species needed. This gives us one of our most peculiar problems 
that we generally call sustained yield or progressive yield. When we are able 
to arrange our forestry according to this last mentioned principle it is a proof 
that we are masters of our profession. r 

Unfortunately vast forest areas in the world are still in the stage of more 
extraction and destruction. It will be hard and long work to extend good forestry 
14 



practices over all the continents. But we must be able to achieve at leas a trend 
fn this direction. We have failed badly if we have only helped people to ge 
some more income from the forest for a few years and then have left them without 
guidance for the development of the potential of the forests m to struggle 
for a materially better living. . 

If we foresters are wise, if we have patience, if we have sufficient knowledge 
not only of the trees but also of the men who work in the forests and own the 
forests if we are clever enough to adjust our forestry projects to the total develop- 
ment of the country, we shall be able to help the human race at least for a very 
long time to be provided with more and better forest products for their needs i» 
housing, fuel, packaging, paper for a high cultural standard, textiles, etc., and 

e lE?our colleagues in agriculture and fisheries will be ab.e to feed the 
approximately fifty million more people each year, is another problem. Both 
optimistic and pessimistic opinions can be found. 

In forestry pessimistic opinions are rare. Perhaps there is sometimes somewhat 
too much oloptimism, particularly with biologically orientated foresters who 
sometimes have forgotten the human and technical factors and the time element 
BrfoTall the biological possibilities are fully utilized, much time ,s needed and 
in many cases law, customs and general opinions must be changed. 

Concerning these last mentioned points of view, my **°*>*'£>™£?* 
following opinion. If we want to educate students, particularly for world for- 
Ly, the" human factor must have a sufficient weight in the study program^ In 
screening people to be sent outside of their own country in order to work in 
world forestry problems, care must be taken, that only such persons are sent 
who are abJtounderstand people living in different condruons, ^er han m 
their own country, and who are able to appreciate the nat.onal peculiar features 
in the cultural environment they will meet in foreign countries. 

WoL once in the tropics as an expert sent by FAO to a government for 
its forest policy I often discussed with a friend of mine, who was working ma 
milar duty in another field, the following problem. There we were helping the 
peop e to Lange their life in such a way that it would be possible for to to 
buy some more material comfort. But will it help them to be happier? We were 
nor Ibie to answer that question. If I am sincere I must say that I had some 
doubt But then I comforted myself by saying that perhaps we can help them 
to make their life a little easier, and even that is worth an effort. 



; 



15 



PART TWO 

EDUCATION 



Challenges in Forestry Education 

Henry J. Vaux 

Dean, School of Forestry 

University of California 



In a prophetic passage published more than forty years ago historian H. G. Wells 
wrote: "Human history becomes more and more a race between education and 
catastrophe." If someone had thought in 1911 to ask the Founders of the 
New York State College of Forestry to predict the outcome of such a race, I 
feel sure they would have expressed little doubt that education would show its 
heels to the forces of destruction. Had they not been strong in such a faith, they 
could scarcely have established this center of forestry education at a time when the 
forces of forest destruction still seemed to dominate the scene. 

During the half-century of life of this institution, forestry education has 
indeed outrun the spectre of forest catastrophe. New York State College of 
Forestry's contributions to that accomplishment have been major ones and they 
merit the honor and recognition that is being bestowed on them on this Fiftieth 
Anniversary occasion. 

But as we celebrate the College's accomplishments we are also aware that in 
the broader race between education and catastrophe, education has been losing 
ground. The current state of that race has recently been clearly put by the 
Rockefeller Panel in Prospect for America. Its authors write: "Never before has 
mankind lived with the fear that it might totally destroy itself ; but on the other 
hand, never before have so many men and women had a chance to live in hope, 
and never before has there been the chance to release so much human intelligence, 
talent and vitality." To seize this chance to release these human abilities is, it 
seems to me, the central challenge of all education today. If education can release 
those abilities, we may hope for solution of the critical problems which now mark 
our public affairs. But if it fails to release them, the race with catastrophe must 
surely be lost. 

Fortunately, the urgency of our educational problem is widely recognized. 
During the past five years our entire educational program from the primary 
grades through the post-graduate university level has been under close scrutiny, 
analysis, and revision. Forestry education has been participating actively in this 
critical process. The forestry faculties here at Syracuse and at many other colleges 
and schools have devoted much attention to problems of educational goals, cur- 
riculum, content of teaching programs, faculty qualifications, student aptitude 
and selection, and the myriad of other important considerations which combine 
to determine the success or failure of our educational effort. 

In 1956, thanks in large measure to the vision and energy of Dean Hardy 
Shirley, the Society of American Foresters undertook a study of education in 

19 



forestry and related fields of natural resource conservation. The study was made 
possible by a grant from the Old Dominion Foundation. It was started under the 
direction of former Associate Dean Wilm of this campus and is now being con- 
ducted by Dean Emeritus S. T. Dana whose report is currently nearing completion. 
Bringing together as it will both the facts of the last thirty years of growth 
and the viewpoints of teachers, administrators, professional foresters, and em- 
ployers, Dean Dana's study could scarcely be more timely. It will provide us 
with solid footings of fact and imaginative but seasoned appraisals of the situation 
on which forestry education will build for many years to come. 

With such widespread self-evaluation of forestry education already under way, 
it would be highly presumptuous for me to attempt a definitive statement of 
the challenges to forestry education. Instead, with your permission, I will use 
my time to speak of a small number of quite familiar matters which seem to me 
of special importance for our understanding of the challenges which forestry 
education faces in 1961. My emphasis will be on education for the profes- 
sional level. 

EDUCATION FOR WHAT? 

The first challenge to professional forestry education today is surely that of 
defining clearly our goal. "An education" said William James "consists in organ- 
izing in the human being powers of conduct which will fit him to his social and 
physical world. One who is educated is able to extricate himself from circumstances 
in which he never was placed before." Thus, to define our educational goal, we need 
some concept of the future social and physical world in which foresters will 
practice. This future extends from perhaps 1971, when our present crop of 
undergraduates will be starting the truly professional part of their careers, to 
the year 2000 and beyond— years with which the present forestry generation is 
already directly concerned. 

The image of what the professional forester is changes and develops as time 
goes on. A few decades ago its most common identification was in terms of the 
jobs that forestry practice requires in the woods or in the mill— the image of 
the forest fire fighter, the tree planter, the timber harvester, or the dry kiln 
operator. Although that image may still be too prevalent in the minds of laymen, 
the self-image of the profession is a more sophisticated one today. It shows the 
forester as a man whose function it is to decide questions of what to produce 
from the forest and what forest and wood technologies best meet production 
needs. He decides these questions on the basis of a thorough knowledge both 
of the science of forests and of wood and of the significance of these resources 
for the human activities which they serve. 

Is this an adequate image to guide our educational programs in the future? 
Both the experience of the past half century and the trend of contemporary 
society suggest, I think, that although these conceptions will remain fundamental 
to professional competence, something more must be added to the generally 
understood image of the profession. 

20 



In a very real and direct sense, what can be accomplished in forestry depends 
mainly on the degree of public awareness and understanding of the role of forests 
and of wood in relation to mankind. Foresters may design management and 
utilization programs of high technical competence. But if such programs are to 
be successfully applied, the forester must not only make his operations serve the 
needs of people but he must also interpret them so that their meaning is clearly 
understood by the broader, non-professional community which ultimately deter- 
mines and limits our action. 

Thus, a further major feature of the professional forestry image must be that 
of the forester as the integrator of the forest with the whole culture of which 
the forest is a part. Unless the forestry profession can fulfill this integrating task, 
we will find ourselves limited and frustrated in trying to achieve forestry goals 
which we recognize as essential. We will fall short of the central professional 
obligation of making our forest and wood resources of most benefit to society. 

From an initial orientation which was much concerned with techniques and 
the jobs of forestry, our education has been making good progress, it seems to 
me, toward the goal of the forester as a scientist-manager. Both the scientific 
foundations and the equipment for decision-making are continually being 
strengthened in almost every professional forestry teaching program. But we have 
as yet hardly begun to analyze, much less deal with, the problem of the edu- 
cational needs of the forester who will perform the strategic function of inte- 
grating, interpreting, and linking forestry to the rest of society in a fashion most 
meaningful for that society. 

THE CHALLENGE OF SCIENCE 

Against these suggestions as to the nature of our educational goal, let me take 
up a few matters which define more clearly our challenge. The first of these is 
the revolutionary progress of science. The theme is too familiar to require 
elaboration here. The challenge it presents is best illustrated by two minor sta- 
tistics. First, the decade 1950-1960 saw publication of more scientific informa- 
tion than was published in all previous history; and second, 90 per cent of all 
the scientists the World has produced are alive today. The implications of these 
two facts for the future seem to me literally staggering. The labors of Hercules— 
the Paul Bunyan of the Ancient World — in cleansing the stables of Augeas were 
trivial in comparison with the task of keeping track of the advances of science 
which are relevant for forestry, much less making the needed adaptations and 
applications of these advances. Yet forestry education must enable the profession 
both to keep abreast of the scientific revolution and to be an active participant in it. 

The challenge of science is sharply intensified by other factors. Until about 
1945 or 1950, there was a relative surplus of forest land in the United States. 
At least in the West, we still had a forest frontier. And as long as that frontier 
remained, both forest management and the utilization of forest products were 
limited to a relatively low order of intensity. Now the forest frontier has closed. 

21 



Although we are only beginning to feel the impact of this significant event, its 
consequences will surely parallel closely the developments in farming which 
followed the closing of the agricultural frontier some sixty years ago. Just as 
that event stimulated massive applications of science to farm technology, prin- 
cipally through improvement of soil fertility, improvement of genetic stock, 
suppression of insects and diseases, and widespread application of labor saving 
devices, similar developments in forest management have inevitably been trig- 
gered by the closing of the forest frontier. 

The economic pressures which have stimulated scientific development of the 
utility and convenience of food products for the consumer suggest analagous 
trends for wood products. 

So we must not only keep up with the electrifying growth of scientific infor- 
mation but must also understand and apply it to forestry problems on a sig- 
nificantly broader scale than ever before. This problem was well stated the other 
day by the Dean of one of our University's engineering colleges. He said: 
"Consolidation of our new knowledge into broad laws is the great challenge 
confronting practicing and teaching engineers. With mountains of new facts 
arising almost monthly, there is urgent need for a Euclid, a Newton, or an 
Einstein in engineering who can draw broad formulations and generalizations 
from seemingly unrelated data." Our need is surely as urgent for a Darwin or a 
Wallace in forestry. 

THE CHALLENGE OF HUMANITY 

Forestry shares with engineering, the medical professions, and others similarly 
based on science a position midway between Science and Humanity. The challenge 
of science which the forester sees when he looks at his woods is matched in com- 
plexity when he turns toward the society which he must make his forest serve. 
Again, the closing of the forest frontier has sharply intensified the problems of 
adapting forest production to the needs of the people. So long as the frontier was 
there the multiple value potentials of the forest could be realized in satisfactory 
amounts without engendering more than local and limited conflict. With the 
closing of the frontier, we find that the concept of multiple use defines a major 
problem as well as providing the framework for its solution. 

Perhaps we have not yet evolved some of the techniques and some of the 
information needed for identifying the best combination of uses for forest areas 
having multiple value potentials. But a far more grievous failure is reflected in 
J-~ fact that much of the public at large gives little acceptance to foresters as 
having professionally qualified judgment on the issues involved. Despite valiant 
efforts by some in our profession, important segments of the public are either 
ignorant of the forester's qualifications for evaluating multiple use problems or 
look with actual mistrust on his advice. We have not thus far established for 
forestry as a profession the public acceptance which is essential to the achieve- 
ment of our professional goals. To provide the basis for gaining such acceptance 
must surely rank high among the challenges to professional education. 

22 



The present conflict among competing forest uses in which the forester finds 
himself occupying properly but uncomfortably the difficult middle ground is only 
one example of the increasing importance of the humanitarian or social side of 
the professional function. 

As little as two decades ago the concern of most people with the forest was 
remote, so long as their needs for wood products were reasonably effectively 
met. But a combination of increasing population, increasing income and leisure 
time, and an amazing increase in individual mobility is rapidly changing this 
outlook. An important fraction of the public now thinks of forests in terms of 
immediate and personal experience. Thus, the forest as an environment, as 
distinct from the forest as a source of products, is more significant today than 
ever before both in the calculus of forest values and in the personal experience 
which determines the public view of forestry. The trend is almost certain to 
extend this emphasis on the forest as an environment affecting an increasing 
proportion of society's activities. Almost any forest manager in the West today 
will tell you that his most important problems are "people problems" and I sus- 
pect that his eastern and southern colleagues would echo the same theme. In so 
doing they are testifying to this growing importance of the forest as environment. 

The implications of this trend for professional education are clear. Qualifica- 
tions based largely on the science and technology of forestry have up to now 
been considered adequate for professional purposes. But such qualifications pro- 
vide little basis for dealing with the problems of people. And the very founda- 
tions for understanding such problems rest in those areas of social science and 
philosophy which have been regarded as of least importance to professional 
competence in the past. Thus there is need for much more emphasis on these 
areas as a matter of professional qualification. This emphasis cannot be bought 
merely by subordinating some presently established aspect of the curriculum. 
For example, the rising value of the forest as environment might suggest a 
corresponding diminution in the importance of wood utilization for forestry. 
But from the standpoint of the forestry profession I have defined, just the opposite 
is true. Indeed, because of the rise of other uses, clear understanding of the role 
of wood utilization is more important for good forestry today than ever before. 
The reason for this apparent paradox is that a great many people who are now 
keenly aware of the social values of the forest environment think of wood utiliza- 
tion as reflecting a narrow special interest. They are oblivious to the fact that 
wood provides almost one fifth of all the physical structure raw materials used 
in the United States. They are ignorant of, or perhaps deliberately ignore, the 
broad economic and social values which result from this simple fact. 

In view of the strong influence which the general public exerts on forest policy, 
such public myopia as to the full range of forest values represents a serious 
threat to truly wise forestry. It can only be corrected by a profession which retains 
full command over its technical and economic foundations, at the same time that 
it is strengthening its ability to influence effectively the public view. 

23 



How to educate foresters to deal with this humanitarian side — the people 
problems — without transcending all reasonable bounds of subject matters is a 
challenge ranking with that of adequate attention to the results of burgeon- 
ing science. 

WHAT KINDS OF PROGRAMS? 

If the evaluation which I have just attempted is anywhere close to the mark, 
then the Challenge of Science and the Challenge of Humanity pose some specific 
problems with which forestry education must deal both effectively and soon. 

First, it must provide men who are capable of advancing forest and wood 
science at levels of specialization deeper, and therefore of necessity narrower, 
than those which are characteristic today. Yet it must also provide the scientific 
synthesizer who is competent to draw together threads from a diversity of disci- 
plines and bring them to bear on practical problems in the use of a resource so 
complex that it cannot be understood in terms of any single scientific discipline. 

Second, forestry education must provide men skilled in managing the land 
with understanding of the biological community with which they work and with 
the technical know-how required to make their work both effective and efficient. 
Yet it must also provide men who are skilled in managing the people who manage 
the land, whether these be the employees who execute technical programs or the 
users of the land whose impact on forestry is steadily increasing. 

And finally, forestry education must provide men who understand the culture 
in which they live sufficiently clearly to organize forest production and use 
effectively in the social interest. And it must provide men equipped to interpret 
both the forest and the forester's management of it to the non-professionals who 
make the decisions which are ultimate for forestry, whether these decision-makers 
be the Members of the Board, the Members of the Congress, or the members of 
society at large. 

A man who carries out any one of these essential roles effectively may claim 
full professional stature. A few may perform successfully in more than one of 
them. But it is perfectly apparent that no individual can be educated to fulfill all 
of these vital professional functions. Thus forestry education must be designed 
to achieve a number of different goals, some of which may require widely variant 
aptitudes and subject matters. 

In meeting this need we are fortunate that forestry education in America has 
evolved from somewhat diverse origins and under a number of contrasting 
philosophies. The resulting diversity of educational approaches is surely a prime 
requisite if the system is to be successful over the range of goals that I have 
outlined. To maintain such diversity and to add new approaches where the existing 
ones are inadequate for the goals to be achieved should be a cornerstone of our 
broad educational policy. It is a cornerstone which will require vigorous defense 
because it is in some respects in conflict with the important concept of educa- 
tional standards. 

24 



Along with maintenance of a diversified structure in forestry education itself, 
more effective means are needed to attract to forestry talent produced elsewhere 
in the educational system. Under existing patterns of graduate education in 
forestry, there is a tendency to insist that the man going on for advanced 
specialization in forest science should first have completed the equivalent of a 
forestry degree. Although this policy has certain justifications, it appears to have 
two major shortcomings. First, it seems unlikely that forestry education alone 
will produce enough men, qualified and interested in continuing to the Ph.D. 
level, to meet the prospective demand for highly trained researchers. Second, the 
very breadth needed in professional education means loss of efficiency in edu- 
cating a specialist. 

Both these problems can be avoided by developing within the graduate forestry 
schools programs for men who, as undergraduates, majored in chemistry, physics, 
botany or some other science basic to advanced forestry research. These programs 
would be designed to develop the interest and ability of such men in applying 
their basic training to problems in forest and wood science, and at the same 
time to provide them with whatever orientation to the professional field 
seems essential. 



WHAT KIND OF FACULTY? 

The most critical factor for the success of any educational program is, of 
course, the quality and character of the faculty. The goals that I have described 
suggest some of the faculty qualifications essential for achieving them. Of course 
it goes without saying that teaching interest and skills are the first qualification. 
The faculty as a whole should reflect a degree of balance with respect to the 
range of educational goals. It should include some research scientists, some 
people with a strong orientation toward management in the broadest sense of 
that term, and some whose interest and skill lies in the area of interpretation. 
Particularly in relation to the latter two categories, intellectual maturity and a 
background of some personal experience with the function in question would be 
virtually mandatory. 

Qualifications outlined in these terms do not seem to bear too much resem- 
blance to our existing criteria for faculty recruitment. In looking for staff, the 
current practice of most institutions (my own included) is to look first for 
people with the Ph.D. As a symbol of research competence, the Doctor of 
Philosophy degree would be an appropriate qualification for the scientific spe- 
cialist and synthesist in forestry education. But it would seem to have little 
value and might even be harmful in the background of a teacher with respon- 
sibilities for either management or interpretation. 

The second qualification which most department chairmen usually mention 
when scouting for new faculty is a background in a specified subject matter, 
or better yet, several specified subject matters. In other words, the faculty is 
recruited to fit the curriculum. This practice, too, would tend to prevent selection 

25 



of the strongest possible faculty. If strength is measured in terms of under- 
standing of the goals I have mentioned and of ability to teach the functions thus 
identified, the matter of the particular subject matters used as the instrument for 
such teaching is of secondary importance. 

Current practice makes the faculty subordinate to the curriculum. Shouldn't 
we turn it just the other way around? Recruit a faculty with the ability to develop 
men of the kinds that we need, and let the forestry portion of the curriculum 
reflect their individual choice as to the most appropriate subject matter for 
their purpose. If this suggestion seems revolutionary, let me remind you of 
James B. Conant's remark: "Education is what is left after what is learned has 
been forgotten." 

To attempt to build faculties along the lines I have just suggested will be 
challenging indeed for any Dean. He will have to find ways around some of 
the most firmly established institutional preconceptions about faculty qualifica- 
tions. And if he treats matters of curriculum as cavalierly as I have just done, 
he may find himself at serious odds with the Civil Service Commission, the 
Committee for the Advancement of Forestry Education and others concerned in 
one way or another with professional standards. 

Moreover, insofar as he needs men of maturity and experience he must con- 
tend with two other serious difficulties. One is the prevalent policy of recruiting 
faculty members at the Instructor or Assistant Professor level. One cannot expect 
to buy experience in that market and the overall strength of a faculty may be 
weakened by inability to bring in men of established professional background. 
Even if existing institutional policies were modified in this respect, the developing 
patterns of terms of employment in both government and industry present in- 
creasingly serious obstacles to securing faculty members with substantial experi- 
ence in professional practice. A man with ten or twelve years of accumulated 
retirement benefits in a particular system is usually past the point where even a 
generous faculty salary scale is financially attractive. 

The problems of staffing are all the more difficult because their causes usually 
lie entirely outside the control of the forestry school. Yet some kind of solution 
for them must be found if we are to meet the challenge of providing on our 
faculties the strongest and best balanced teaching talents which the profession 
can muster. 

WHAT KIND OF STUDENTS? 

Finally, there is the challenge of the student. A forestry profession with the 
broad range of functions that I have described is going to need students of the 
highest quality and of a diversity of aptitudes. To date, the profession has been 
most successful in attracting men with a technical and scientific bent, charac- 
teristics which we shall continue to need in increasing numbers. But perhaps 
the "mix" of students should be enriched with more of those with primary 
interests and aptitudes for the human side of forestry problems. 

26 



I suspect that the appeal of forestry to high school students selecting a career 
still rests heavily on concepts that are either obsolete or naive. Certainly many 
students are attracted to our field by the notion of an outdoor occupation, of 
close association with nature, and of freedom from some of the trammels of a 
highly organized society. I would not argue against the validity of any of these 
concepts as a partial, though wholly inadequate, characterization of forestry. But 
I would ask the question: Do they not serve as a hidden but powerful device 
for student selection, in effect deterring the entry into forestry of the men who 
are primarily motivated by problems of human beings? Should this be true and 
if orientation toward humanity is as strategic for forestry progress as I have 
maintained, the task of creating a more accurate image of the forester in the 
minds of potential students is a major one in terms of both importance and 
difficulty. 

Finally I come to perhaps the most important challenge of all. The combination 
of appropriate educational programs, highly qualified faculties, and able students 
selected in the light of needed aptitudes may still fall short of successful edu- 
cational achievement if the people involved lack a driving motivation. When this 
College of Forestry was established in 1911, a notable characteristic of forestry 
was the crusading spirit of the foresters. Such a spirit seems to have been one 
of the essentials for the forestry accomplishments of the first part of this century. 
And the crusading atmosphere was admirable as a means for arousing the interest, 
enthusiasm, and devotion needed for effective motivation of men toward forestry. 
Fifty years of growth have resulted in a forestry policy in America which 
rests on broad economic, social, and cultural grounds. The approach to forestry 
problems today is based much more on the facts of the scientist, and the reasoned 
judgment of the practical philosopher than on the zeal of the crusader. Surely, 
this is a sign of maturity which we can welcome and commend without derogation 
of the founders of the profession. But as the crusading element in forestry has 
dwindled, we have lost a principal source of the energy which drove forestry 
ahead in its early years. Today, with all the increased sophistication of our 
approach to forestry, the public image of the forester lacks some of the dynamism 
that it had a half century ago. 

I do not mean to imply that the forestry profession today is less far-sighted, 
less devoted, or less committed to ideals than was true in 1911. Vision, devotion, 
and commitment characterize the forester of 1961 as much as his predecessor 
of fifty years ago. But skepticism is inherent in forest science and pragmatism is 
essential for the growth of forestry practice, and these attitudes allow little room 
for the emotion of a crusade. As a result of attentuation of forestry's emotional 
appeal, we have lost a magnet which was important in attracting young men of 
earlier decades toward the profession and in motivating them toward maximum 
academic and professional accomplishment. 

This situation has developed at a time when dramatic new fields have been 
emerging to spark the imagination of the student generation. But equally powerful 
bases for motivation are now available to us which were not at hand in the 

27 



days of crusade. What we need is to make clear to non-professionals in generaL 
and to students in particular the essential fact that Dr. McArdle and Dr. Morgan 
have depicted so well this morning. That is that the problems in the use of 
wood and of forest land involve the same order and depth of intellectual chal- 
lenge as those inherent in the conquest of space, the harnessing of atomic energy, 
or the explanation of photosynthesis. 

Similarly, solutions of the problems in the use of wood and forest land 
involve consequences which, in the long run, may have results for society and 
humanity commensurate with solutions to problems of international tensions, of 
the psychological erosions of industrial society, or of health and disease. We 
in forestry have recognized and understood these facts. But we must make them 
much clearer to non-foresters if forestry education is to continue to attract in its 
students the intellectual talents that we need and to inspire in them the maximum 
of motivation. 

CONCLUSION 

Although to deal successfully with the several educational problems that I 
have tried to describe this morning will not be easy, I am confident that forestry 
education will meet these challenges. But to achieve only this will not have 
been enough. 

Long ago Gifford Pinchot pointed out that the concept of forest conserva- 
tion was much more than wise use of forest resources. He recognized it as a 
major instrument for accomplishing a broad range of social ends. For example, 
he often cited the potential usefulness of foreign forestry assistance as a tool 
in the solution of problems of international understanding. Our own recent 
experience with foreign technical assistance makes it clear that such oppor- 
tunities are indeed significant and that they can only be realized through careful 
educational preparation. It has been said that nothing either wise or decent is 
given to the world without a sense of the future. Forestry is uniquely adapted to 
help the world to regain that sense of the future. 

To recognize and to capitalize on potentialities such as this for helping to 
solve the major non-forestry problems of our times is a lofty challenge which I 
think we still must face. I hope we in forestry education will recognize and 
accept that challenge. By doing so we can renew the sense of urgency in forestry 
education which enabled it to win the race with forest destruction, and we can 
help to deal with today's challenge to humanity— the race between education 
and catastrophe. 



28 



Some Notes on Professional Education 

Thomas H. Hamilton 

President 
State University of New York 



It is with real pleasure that I join in the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary 
of the founding of the College of Forestry. In this comparatively brief span of 
time (I have now reached the point where I feel obliged to look upon 50 years 
as something less than middle-age), this institution has attained a reputation 
both excellent and international, and it is proper that we commemorate on this 
anniversary this achievement of excellence, this attainment of world renown. 

In a rather general way, I have been aware of the quality of the College of 
Forestry for a long time; but this was made abundantly clear to me just a few 
years ago when, given some responsibility for recruiting faculty at another uni- 
versity with a school of forestry, I discovered that the professionals of that 
school invariably insisted that we steal faculty from this one. If imitation is 
always a high form of flattery, I would suggest that, among universities, the con- 
sistent and undisguised threat of piracy is evidence of even greater esteem. 

On the other hand, the international nature of your responsibilities was re- 
emphasized to me shortly before I joined State University of New York when 
I met several of your faculty members in the research facilities of the University 
of the Philippines in Los Banos. And, in our time, this is becoming a common- 
place thing. In effect, the truly boundary-less scope of higher learning, taken 
for granted in the fifteenth century, then woefully misplaced, has only recently 
been reaffirmed — and you have cause to be proud of the significant contributions 
you have made to this important reaffirmation. Let me, then, join in congratulating 
the faculty, the staff, and the trustees of this institution on the job which has 
been done. Your reputation is good and it is wide. 

My remarks tonight will be directed to a few of the problems now facing 
professional education in the United States. Certainly this is a field in which I 
pretend to no expertise, but this fact has never stopped me from talking before, 
and it will not, to your great misfortune, stop me tonight. As a matter of fact, 
my position calls for me to address myself to so many topics for which my back- 
ground is inadequate, that I usually think of myself as a sophistic circuit rider. 

And yet it could be maintained that the fact that the College of Forestry has 
achieved the eminence it clearly has, implies that you have already solved a good 
many of the problems of professional education. And if this were a static society, 
a society satisfied with what it has learned and unwilling to alter its view of itself 
or of its constituent parts, then it could be said that your work would be finished. 
But this, happily, is not the case. As a people we have come to know enough 
to know what we have yet to learn. While we may yearn for an earlier stability, 
our society as a whole has committed itself to the necessity of change. And, so 

29 



long as perfection is denied us, our social institutions will — and must — continue 
to evolve, hopefully but not assuredly, for the better. 

The university, and of course professional education, find themselves most 
squarely in the flux of our time. Both (to think of them separately for a moment) 
have considerably altered their basic premises over the past fifty years, and each 
has reflected its views upon the other. But professional education, it seems to me, 
has contributed more to the changing nature of the university than the university 
has, in turn, worked upon it. I am thinking of the fact that 100 years ago there 
were, for all intents and purposes, but four professions represented in our insti- 
tutions of higher learning: the medical, legal, theological, and teaching pro- 
fessions. But today, as Earl McGrath has recently reminded us, there are over 
2200 professions requiring highly trained practitioners, with from 10 to 20 
new ones added annually. 1 This fact has put a terriffic strain upon the university, 
of course, for in the last analysis it is the university, while responsive to society, 
which must decide to what ends it will devote its limited resources. The problem, 
you will recognize, is complicated by a general failure to define in any precise 
way what, in fact, a profession is, or ought to be— what mode of life it demands, 
what responsibilities it entails, and what competencies it requires. While extended 
concern with this question of definition is hardly warranted tonight, it still 
remains true that we must know what attributes we wish to encourage before 
beginning the more arduous task of deciding what institutional forms are most 
likely to induce these attributes. 

This is, as Mr. McGrath's figures would indicate, a very confusing problem. 
And it is confusing, in no small measure, because of our great desire for status 
and symbols. Whether it be the man who openly bleeds to ensconce himself in a 
carpeted office behind a desk (not oak, but mahogany), or the man who places 
great value on title, it is simply true that, as a nation, we are inordinately inter- 
ested in achieving status— so much so, I believe, that the net effect is extremely 
unhealthy. Thus, very few people these days, particularly if they have had the 
advantage of a college education, want to be considered as engaged in a vocation. 
On the contrary, they would like to be considered professional men. I shall not 
risk giving offense to any particular group by naming names, but I am certain that 
you can all quickly recall groups of individuals who speak of their calling as a 
"profession" when it would seem perfectly clear that to categorize the occupation 
in this fashion involves a real exercise of the imagination. 

At this point, then, it might be useful to sketch out at least some of the 
attributes which an occupation should have before it is to be designated as a 
profession. The establishment of such criteria may appear arbitrary, but, unless 
we are to call all work professional, their formulation would seem to be necessary. 

First of all, then, a profession should be of such a nature as to require edu- 
cation at the higher level to permit an individual to practice it. This means that 

1 Earl J. McGrath, Liberal Education in the Professions, Institute of Higher Education 
(Teachers College, Columbia University, 1959) p. 2. 

30 



the professional activity should be based upon and grow out of a sizable body of 
knowledge, at least some of which is directed toward a practical end. In most 
cases, and increasingly so, this education extends beyond the undergraduate 
degree, although one cannot be doctrinaire on this point. 

Secondly, a profession demands that its practitioners be capable of and entrusted 
with a considerable degree of individual responsibility. In other words, the pro- 
fessional, by definition, exercises discretion and makes decisions, and is capable 
of doing both because of the qualifications imposed upon him by his colleagues. 
His pre-entry learning and experience must, therefore, equip him with the humane 
and specialized knowledge necessary to make wise decisions on his own. 

And third, and perhaps most important of all, a profession at maturity is always 
characterized as concerned with the public interest, which is to say, that, governed 
by a code of ethics, it demands of its practitioners an allegiance reaching out 
beyond the requirements of personal benefit or judgment. It creates and sustains 
a value system, pertinent to its special activity, but subsuming the individual 
exercise of that activity, even when the result is economic loss. 

These three requirements, then, I believe constitute the basic, the minimal, 
characteristics of any vocation seeking the name, "profession." And I think, if 
we look closely, that they give us some useful clues about the nature of the higher 
learning which should be prerequisite for one seeking to enter a profession. Not 
incidentally, they also indicate the kinds of changes which professional education 
has worked upon the university, and the university, in turn, upon professional 
education. 

First of all, let us be clear that, in the main, the professions have been and 
continue to be primarily concerned with technical or specialized competence. 
This is the barrier to entry which no aspiring candidate can successfully avoid. 
In certain professions he might, even today, satisfy this requirement without 
much higher learning — in apprentice programs or with long experience — but, 
regardless of this, he brings to the entering level a capacity to operate technically. 
He has learned the rudiments of his practice. In this important sense, profes- 
sional education represents "utility"; it confesses an abiding interest in the 
practical. 

The Western university tradition, on the other hand, has historically professed 
a primary concern with theory, rather than practice. With its intellectual roots 
in ancient Greece, and subject to some vacillation over the years, it has stead- 
fastly deprecated utility and favored disinterestedness. 

This apparent antipathy has irritated and confused the purposes of higher 
learning for hundreds of years, for, unlike the more profound theorists, some 
have made the assumption that liberal studies are qualitatively superior to prac- 
tical studies on the one hand, and, on the other, that some subjects are inherently 
liberal and other inherently pragmatic. The fact that business administration can 
be taught liberally or that Latin literature can be taught illiberally has been 
totally lost on some of our colleagues. And it is this body of opinion which has 

31 



been most vocal in proposing that the university must choose — that a commitment 
to the liberal involves a denial of the practical. 

Now, that there should still be a lingering but tenacious allegiance to this 
point of view is as much the fault of the professions as anyone else. What I am 
getting at here is the very real propensity, only now relaxing, of the professions 
to demand that their practitioners pay attention only to the first of the attributes 
pertaining to professional life. Consistently, the various professions have insisted 
that students "cover the field" technically, that they emerge from four or five 
(or indeed eight) years of study, with specialized competence, sufficient not only 
to begin to practice but to measure up to all of the known contingencies which 
might conceivably arise in the field. This point of view, especially in a time of 
rapidly expanding knowledge, has resulted in an extremely crowded and ex- 
tremely narrow curriculum. You all know this; and you know, too, that the 
graduate, not infrequently, has been dehumanized in the process. And the genuine 
humanist, confronted with this result, has, with some justification, been horrified. 

But it is very encouraging to note that the professions themselves, confronted 
with the same spectacle, have also expressed, if not horror, at least considerable 
dismay. This dismay, of course, arises from a number of considerations, only some 
of which are shared by the humanist. And I think that, by getting at some of 
these considerations, we might better visualize some of the key problems pro- 
fessional education is now attempting to solve. 

In the first instance, the simple truth that a man is a human being, before, 
during, and after he is a lawyer or a forester, is coming to be re-emphasized by 
those responsible for professional education. This is a fact which the university, 
per se, has insisted be recognized from the very beginning. And, if the professional 
disavows any direct responsibility for cultivating the intellectual virtues proper 
to man as a man — to man as thoughtful, decision-making citizen — he now in- 
creasingly is willing to permit other faculties of the university to assume this 
responsibility. Thus, intellectual experiences of a non-professional nature are 
finding their way back into the professional student's life. 

Aside from this tendency, an equally compelling argument for nonprofessional 
studies in fast arising, in spite of the apparent paradox, from the very requirements 
of the modern, mature profession itself. This, it would seem, has two main facets. 
The one concerns the ethical attributes of the responsible professional man; the 
other has to do with the nature of the specific disciplines which he must master. 

In the first instance, the professions are uniformly being made aware that at 
any given point in a practitioner's development it is likely that his chief failings 
will be those totally unrelated to specialized function. It is with the assumption 
of responsibility which extends well beyond his technical problems that the 
professional increasingly finds that he must rely upon liberal studies. A few years 
ago I wrote of this dependence in relation to the engineering profession, but I 
think what I said has general application. 



32 



"The engineer at the head of a multi-billion dollar project will find that 
he must have some knowledge of, and be able to communicate with, the 
practitioners of law, of finance and of politics. Here, as many an engineer 
has learned to his considerable discomfort, blueprints and formulae prove 
unsatisfactory as media of communication. Thus it becomes clear that the 
engineer of the future must be ... at least an adequate generalist in . . . 
those liberal disciplines which permit him to understand something about 
the nature of the physical and social world and the human beings and their 
works with which that world is populated." 

What I am suggesting here is that the engineer must know, not only how tc 
build a bridge that will last, but why the bridge should be built in the first 
place, what economic and social effects it is likely to have on the surrounding 
community, how it can be made aesthetically pleasing and, important too, how 
to convince all those concerned with the project of the propriety of following 
one course and not another. I would suggest to you that so long as he is unable 
to satisfy these last responsibilities, he is something less than the professional 
he supposes himself to be. 

I would turn now to the changing nature of the specific disciplines which the 
professional must master— from the concept of the professional as generalist 
to the professional as representative of highly developed, specialized competence. 
Here, if I read correctly the judgments of those who are far more knowledgeable 
than I am in this field, there is considerable agreement on the need for more 
emphasis upon principles rather than techniques, a greater concern for the basic 
as opposed to the applied, a need for intellectual flexibility and the capacity to 
contribute to and comprehend changed conditions, rather than the ability to deal 
with the machinery, the hardware that happens to be in use at any one time. 
In years gone by, we have, on occasion, built into professional education an 
automatic obsolescence; in other words, we find that we have educated profes- 
sionals who, ten years after graduation, are no longer able to cope with the 
developments they find characteristic of their profession. If this tendency is to 
be corrected, inevitably we must insist upon a far greater emphasis upon the 
root disciplines of a given activity— economics, mathematics, physics, zoology, 
botany, to name but a few— even if this entails the elimination of courses con- 
cerned only with contemporary practice. 

At this point some of you might well be irritated with what I have suggested. 
And in a way, I shouldn't blame you, for there are difficulties here which one 
can too easily gloss over. In rationalizing the need for liberal studies on the one 
hand, and the basic disciplines which undergird the profession on the other, 
it is altogether possible to decimate the professional curriculum in such a way as 
to foster an inability ever to come to terms with the problems of application. 
The possibility of impeding the professional's practical energy, of handicapping 
his ability to cope with real problems in a real world, is one which cannot be 
overlooked. We might, indeed, throw out the baby with the bath. 

33 



It is also possible that, without careful thought, we shall attempt to satisfy 
our acknowledged need for a broadened liberal base by arbitrarily assigning pro- 
fessional students to courses of study which are only ostensibly liberal, but which, 
in fact, are more circumscribed and more specialized than those from which he 
is excused. This is an immensely complex problem and one which only the entire 
university can hope to solve. As Sir Eric Ashby has so forcefully reminded us, 
it will not do for us "to plume ourselves upon our liberality when we stick a 
few bits of the humanities on the outside of the fabric of science and technology. 2 " 
What is required is nothing less than "making specialist studies (whatever they 
are: metallurgy, or dentistry, or Norse philology) the core around which are 
grouped liberal studies which are relevant to these specialist studies. But they 
must be relevant; the path to culture should be through a man's specialism, not 
by-passing it. 3 " 

Ashby suggests what he has in mind with this interesting example: 
"Suppose a student decides to take up the study of brewing: his way to 
acquire general culture is not by diluting his brewing courses with popular 
lectures on architecture, social history, and ethics, but by making brewing 
the core of his studies. The sine qua non for a man who desires to be 
cultured is a deep and enduring enthusiasm to do one thing excellently. 
So there must first of all be an assurance that the student genuinely wants to 
make beer. From this it is a natural step to the study of biology, microbiology, 
and chemistry: all subjects which can be studied not as techniques to be 
practised but as ideas to be understood. As his studies gain momentum the 
student could, by skilful teaching, be made interested in the economics of 
marketing beer, in public-houses, in their design, in architecture; or in the 
history of beer-drinking from the time of the early Egyptian inscriptions, 
and so in social history: or, in the unhappy moral effects of drinking too 
much beer, and so in religion and ethics. A student who can weave his 
technology into the fabric of society can claim to have a liberal education; 
a student who cannot weave his technology into the fabric of society cannot 
claim even to be a good technologist. 4 " 

I think you will agree that this illustration is a little far-fetched. Because 
Falstaff is pretty good with a tankard of ale is not sufficient reason, in my judg- 
ment, to assign our brewery student the two parts of Henry IV instead of 
Hamlet and Othello. But I think it admirably gets at the kind of thing with 
which not only professional faculties, but the entire university must come to 
grips. This will not be easily done; it may even require a kind of minor intel- 
lectual revolution. But it will never be done until the professional educator 
commits himself to its importance and, with all the articulation and grace he 



2 Sir Eric Ashby, Technology and the Academics (Macmillan & 


Co. 


Ltd, 


New York 


1958), p. 81. 








s Ibtd., p. 84. 








4 Ibid., p. 84-85. 









34 



can muster, attempts to convince his humanist colleagues to meet him half-way. 
Thus far, I believe, an effort of this kind has not been made. And you can be 
certain that I haven't the temerity to try, this evening, to describe how it can 
be made. But I am convinced that it must be, that without it, or something like it, 
the university will slowly lose its relevance and thus its immense influence over 
the development of men and society. 

In this respect I think we can find some cause for optimism. "The social 
institution which we call a university has endured now for seven centuries. It 
could have been destroyed, either by resisting pressure to change and so losing 
its viability, or by yielding too readily to change and so losing its integrity. 
But it has survived by adapting itself to the scientific revolution without abdi- 
cating its traditional function in society. 5 " It now must adapt itself to the claims 
of the generalist and the demands of specialization. And this, I feel confident, 
it will do . . . and in doing it will preserve for the society which supports it, 
that dedication to truth, that reverence for the past and that commitment to the 
future, without which society cannot hope to prosper. 



5 Ibid., p. 97. 






35 



Reaching Toward Our Future 

Hardy L. Shirley 

Dean 

State University College of Forestry 



A dean who would be a prophet on his own campus has ample biblical warning 
of the reception to expect. Prophecy must foretell change or it is false. And if it 
does so, is unpopular because it is upsetting to the status quo. Hence, planners 
are often accused of being visionary, yet "without vision the people perish." 
As Confucius subtly expressed it — "If a man take no thought about what is 
distant, he will find sorrow near at hand." 

Nothing challenges a man's ability more than planning for an uncertain future. 
It is wise to approach it with due humility and a minimum of dogmatism. 

Planning implies some human capacity to weigh the happenings of the day, 
separating those that are vestiges of a receding past from the portents of an 
unfolding future. Most of all, however, planning deals with goals — with what 
is significant and good for family, corporation, college, or country. Rarely is 
the planner faced with a single choice between good and evil or between the 
right road and the wrong road. Usually he is faced with many potential oppor- 
tunities to attain desirable goals. His task is to select the most feasible path to 
pursue. In doing so, he will give careful thought to the resources he may employ 
to influence what the future will be. 

Planning starts with where we are and the road by which we have traveled. 
It must also consider the direction of this road and the momentum attained as 
well as the goals for the future. 

State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University has a past replete 
with distinguished service. The broad scope of its activities were set forth during 
its first decade. It was decided that it should engage in education at technician, 
full professional, and graduate level in forestry. It was recognized that public 
information and research should be important functions. The College boldly 
ventured into fields then thought to lie outside of forestry — city and park forestry 
which over the years developed into landscape architecture; wood technology 
and forest utilization which have developed into wood products engineering; 
wood distillation that formed the base for the College programs in chemistry 
and pulp and paper technology. 

Always the faculty and administration had in mind that it was educating young 
men for useful lives as well as professional service; hence, breadth as well as 
depth in instruction was emphasized. 

The early struggle for survival and recognition in a competitive fiscal and 
professional environment tempered both faculty and students. It stimulated a 
strong cspirit de corps. Thus, the College achieved momentum. 

36 



It was strongly supported during these days by the Chancellor of Syracuse 
University and by the College trustees. To these men and their successors the 
College owes much. The breadth of the statute founding and continuing the 
College was worked out under their guidance. Certain words of this document 
merit repeating because it established the framework for past and present planning: 

§6002. OBJECTS AND PURPOSES. Such college shall have for its 
objects and purposes: 1. The teaching and instruction of its students in the 
science and practice of forestry and its several branches, including municipal 
and landscape forestry, forest engineering and surveying, botany, zoology, 
entomology, ichthyology, silviculture, forest pathology, wood preservation, 
utilization and distillation and the manufacture and marketing of forest 
products. 

2. The carrying on and promotion of investigations, experiments and 
research in forestry and its several branches in field and forest, class room 
and laboratory and in industrial and commercial plants, also like investiga- 
tions, experiments and research in relation to the habits, life histories, 
methods of propagation and management of fish, birds, game, food and 
fur-bearing animals and forest wild life. 

3. The conduct upon land acquired by purchase, gift or lease for such 
purpose, and otherwise of such experiments in forestation, reforestation, 
the development of forests for public, commercial and recreational purposes, 
the protection of water courses and subterranean waterflow, the protection 
and propagation of the animal life of the forest and forest waters, and, 
generally, the giving of popular instruction and information concerning the 
elements of forestry, the effective marketing of forest products and of 
practical tree-planting throughout the state, as the board of trustees shall 
deem most advantageous to the interests of the state and the advancement 
of the science of forestry. 

4. The planting, raising, cutting and selling of trees and timber at such 
times, of such species, and quantities and in such manner as the board 
of trustees deems best with a view of obtaining and imparting knowledge 
concerning the scientific management and use of forests, their regulation 
and administration, and the production, harvesting and reproduction of 
forest crops and the earning of revenue therefrom. 

The College met its major test for survival when the State let the contract 
for constructing the first College building, Bray Hall. Thereafter, the College 
felt secure in developing its long-range educational and research objectives. 

Now, in its fiftieth year, with properties and plant valued at 12 million dollars, 
with an annual budget of 2.7 million, with a faculty and research staff of 115, 
a student enrollment of 765, the College has fulfilled in good measure the hopes 
and dreams of its founders. Its 176 graduate students include 68 from 23 coun- 
tries other than our own. Through the Empire State Paper Research Associates 
it draws support for research from fourteen foreign corporations representing 

37 



eight nations and three continents. Through the International Cooperation 
Administration, the College has four faculty members assigned to the College 
of Forestry in the Philippines. The College has the understanding support of 
the trustees and administration of State University of New York that provide 
countless services and general supervision over College affairs. Certainly, the 
College has come a long way since 1911, when its appropriation was but $15,000. 

To outsiders it may seem to have arrived. But no faculty member would agree. 
What we are doing today is but a fraction of what the faculty feels needs to be 
done and can be done to use our forest resources better, and to provide better 
education for forestry students. 

As the College looks ahead to the next fifty years, it sees our population 
expanding, our standards of living rising, our demands for education increasing, 
and our need for forest products and services multiplying. It expects our nation 
to continue to play a leading role in world affairs that will involve us in concern 
for forestry in other lands as well as our own. If the forests of the world are 
to be wisely handled and their products processed to meet growing human needs, 
foresters of all levels and types will be needed. We will need technicians to 
handle the routine work that lies beyond the competence of skilled workmen. 
We will need land managers to give professional direction to developing the 
timber, water, wildlife, forage, and recreational resources of forests so as to 
maximize income and total human satisfaction. We will need imaginative de- 
signers to plan the landscape for the best possible use by a population ever 
increasing in density. Staff specialists will be needed in silviculture, tree improve- 
ment, protection of forests against destructive insects and diseases. Zoologists, 
hydrologists, forest statisticians, and many others must back up the work of the 
land manager. Even greater need is expected for men who can bring professional 
skills to the forest products industries — pulp and paper, lumber, plywood, furni- 
ture, and related wood-processing activities. Research men also will be needed 
in greatly increased numbers for no major human activity can expect to maintain 
its position in our highly competitive economy without a continuous flow of 
new information, ideas, processes, and products. Most of all, we shall need 
teachers for technical schools, forestry colleges, and, especially, graduate schools. 
For we must educate not only our own teachers and research workers but many 
for other lands as well. 

Our nation has seen a tremendous increase in the productivity of labor during 
the past fifty years. This has been true on both farm and in factory. In large 
measure, this increased output is due to increased use of power-driven machinery 
and new development resulting from research. The forest products industries 
generally, though quick to adapt new machines, have lagged in research. Even 
in New York State we spend in proportion to contributions to State income but 
40 per cent as much for education and research in forestry as in agriculture. 

Forestry appears to be poised at the frontier of many new research fields of 
potentially high significance. Break-throughs seem imminent in tree improvement 
and genetics; tree nutrition; soil fauna and their relation to soil productivity; 

38 



systemics applied to disease and insect control ; antibiotics in relation to ecology 
and tree health ; tree physiology as it bears on maximum use of soil space, water 
and solar energy in cellulose production ; biochemistry as it relates to tree growth 
and decay of wood, forest management for water infiltration, and water yield; 
the ultramicroscopic structure of wood and its influence on timber physics, timber 
mechanics, pulp qualities and papermaking; graft polymers with cellulose and 
lignin that may permit tailoring those molecules for specific new purposes. These 
and other new fields are beckoning tomorrow's forest scientists. To open up these 
new fields forest scientists will require fundamental knowledge in physics, chem- 
istry, statistics, and engineering science as well as in biology, economics and 
management. 

As we reach toward our future, we see a growing need for educated men in 
all fields of College activity. We need more pulp and paper technologists because 
of the growing uses of paper products and of the increasing technologic com- 
plexity of specialized processes and uses. We need imaginative engineers and 
designers to keep wood, an aesthetically pleasing product, competitive and satis- 
fying in light construction, home and office interiors, furniture and a host of 
other uses. We need landscape architects to plan man's use of land so that indus- 
trial, commercial and residential areas may be functional, pleasing, adjusted to 
modern transportation and interspersed with appropriate parks and recreational 
areas. We need multiple use forest managers who can adjust timber, water, 
wildlife and recreation use to land capability. 

NEW ACADEMIC DEMANDS 

The College must be prepared to do two things — have more specialization 
and also more generalization. Academically, the College has gone through a 
marked transformation since 1945. Emphasis has shifted from vocational to 
professional education, from instruction in current practices to teaching of basic 
principles, and from largely an undergraduate college to a college with a strong 
program of graduate study and research. Modern technology necessarily becomes 
daily more complex and more pervasive. 

The College needs more students, better students, more intensive education, 
more graduate work, more faculties, more laboratories, more elaborate equipment, 
and more research in the decades ahead than we have today. 

NEW GOALS 

But a college looking to its future, must think in terms that go beyond numbers 
of students, breadth of educational offerings, and intensity of study. It needs 
to think in terms of the human goals. Education deals with finding vigorous 
minds and calling forth their innate abilities and capacities. It seeks to inspire 
young people to high levels of achievement, and it seeks to help youth to set 
goals in life worthy of themselves as individuals. Only by so doing can they be 
true to themselves. We especially need to discover early the superior student 
and develop him to the highest degree possible for outsatnding service as scientist, 

39 



administrator, or professional worker. Humans who reach for the stars never 
had greater expectation for success than today. People of all lands are realizing 
that man has vastly greater potentials for creativity than he has so far attained. 
Man is destined to "roam with a hungry heart." What he is able to discover is 
but a gateway leading further into the unknown. Aristotle phrased it succinctly 
in "It is man's nature to desire to know." It was this desire that inspired the 
building of colleges and universities. It was this spirit that guided our own 
leaders during the post-Revolutionary period to establish in our land a govern- 
ment where man could be free to develop his talents to the utmost. 

Today our college extends its influence beyond the limits of our city, our 
state, and our nation to draw in people from throughout the world. We must 
somehow catch the imagination of mankind of many places — not to perpetuate 
the status quo, not to oppose any particular ideology but, rather, to awaken the 
desire to know, and, in knowing, the will to be free. 



40 



Accent on Quality 

William P. Tolley 

Chancellor 
Syracuse University 



It is always a pleasure and privilege to participate in the celebration of an anni- 
versary of an institution that has a distinguished record of public service and 
its own personal record of emphasis upon excellence. The first school of forestry, 
so far as we know, was organized in Saxony in 1811, one hundred and fifty 
years ago. However, we are here to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the 
New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. While it is not the 
oldest College of Forestry in the world or even in America, in its mere half 
century of existence it has already taken a place of leadership among the very best. 
This is a source of deep pride as we celebrate the Golden Anniversary of the 
College of Forestry. It is now time to remind ourselves of the counsel of the 
great German poet Goethe: "What you have inherited from your fathers earn 
again for yourselves or it will not be yours." 

It is deceptive to assume that an accent on quality is self-sustaining or that 
its maintenance is automatic. The burgeoning of applications for admission 
and the focusing of public attention upon higher education may make it seem 
that quality will come naturally. The fact is that it will require everywhere a 
very vigorous effort, clear understanding, and thorough commitment. 

As enrollments double nationally from three million currently enrolled in 
higher educational institutions to six million, we must bear in mind that this 
increase is not solely due to the birth rate. There is also an increase in the 
percentage of high school graduates seeking higher education. It has gone up 
about 10 per cent each decade and shows no sign of abating. Unfortunately, the 
motives behind this are not necessarily those that will produce excellence. Social 
and economic forces still outweigh intellectual curiosity. We have not yet suc- 
ceeded in either identifying or motivating the most gifted young people. 

An equally serious problem affecting an accent on quality is the increasing 
shortage of thoroughly trained faculty members. It has been estimated by the 
National Education Association, the United States Office of Education, and the 
Carnegie Corporation that we may need as many as 450,000 new teachers in higher 
education by 1970 in order to replace those who leave or are retired and to meet 
the expanding educational opportunities provided throughout the nation. During 
this decade it is estimated that we will produce in all fields only about 150,000 
Ph.D.'s even allowing for the slowly increasing rate in the numbers so prepared. 
Less than 50 per cent of those earning the Ph.D. degree now enter teaching as a 
career. Bernard Berelson, Director of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at 
Columbia University, points out, "Today the single organization in this country 

41 



that employs the most Ph.D.'s is not Harvard, Yale, or Illinois or Michigan. 
It is du Pont. Furthermore, General Electric has more than twice as many Ph.D.'s 
on its staff as Princeton, Shell has more than M.I.T., Union Carbide or Eastman 
or I.B.M. have about as many as Northwestern or California Tech. Such indus- 
trial firms employ more Ph.D.'s than all the liberal arts colleges put together and 
the Federal Government has about as many as the top ten universities put 
together." Among those who do enter college teaching the majority will gravitate 
toward those institutions with graduate programs and opportunities for research. 
It is likely in the next decade that less than 20 per cent will enter undergraduate 
teaching. It is to be hoped that colleges of forestry, sensitive as they are to the 
problems of conservation, will develop ways and means of avoiding this attrition 
at the crucial point of the creation of quality. 

The explosion of knowledge that is occurring as an increasingly unmanage- 
able chain reaction poses another threat to the maintenance of quality. It calls 
for statesmanship and vision in the re-examination of curricula. The distinguished 
report of The Rockefeller Brothers Foundation entitled, The Pursuit of Excellence, 
calls our attention to the fact that we must "educate our young people for an 
unknown need." There is a constant threat within education that it will be 
education for obsolescence. Margaret Mead, the distinguished anthropologist, 
has pointed out that "no one will live all his life in the world into which he 
was born, and no one will die in the world in which he worked in his maturity." 
We cannot accomplish our educational task merely by keeping children and 
young adults in school longer, we must provide a quality of education that is 
truly creative, together with opportunities for continuing education throughout life. 

In the light of what I have thus far said, it should be clear that while we 
are celebrating the Golden Anniversary of the College of Forestry, we dare not 
regard it as the golden age. That is in the future. You know far better than I do 
the changes that have taken place in forestry over the past fifty years. You know 
the advance in silviculture, in wood utilization, in paper chemistry, and in the 
new world of polymers. Whether we turn to the problems of park management, 
landscape architecture, conservation, land use planning, nursery practices, public 
administration, the training of men for private business, or to new horizons 
of resins, plywoods, laminated wood, pressed wood, light construction, paper 
and plastics, we see wonders being wrought. Who in 1911 would have dreamed 
we would be debarking and pulping hard woods — a contribution of this college, 
that we would find uses for branch wood and top-loppings, that we would make 
sugar and alcohol from sawdust and waste forest products? Who would have 
foreseen the revolution in packaging and containers? Who among the handful 
interested in soil conservation would have dreamed up the program of soil 
conservation districts launched by the Federal Government during World War II 
or would have thought it could be so "taken-for-granted" today? Who would 
have expected that a great lumber company like Weyerhaeuser would be exercising 
national leadership in the intelligent use of forests and other natural resources? 
Who would have foreseen the profound impact of world forestry through the 

42 



Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations? Who would have 
expected that the graduates of our forestry schools would more and more become 
the leaders in all the industries using forest products? 

We have a right to rub our eyes. We have a duty to give thanks. There is a 
lesson here also. The lesson is that education is not an expense but an investment. 
It is the wisest investment an individual or a state can make. The dollars invested 
in the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University have been 
returned a hundred fold in the past fifty years. 

Forestry is still a young, vigorous and expanding field. Those who succeed in 
it will be those distinguished, as in all sciences, by an unusual capacity to dream, 
a dogged persistence in pursuit of truth, and a ready adaptability to the empirically 
verified facts. Foresters know the truth stated by Francis Bacon long ago, "We 
cannot command nature except by obeying her." 

The command of nature has brought us an abundance of material wealth. 
Throughout our world there is a growing faith in this power of education. 
Without resources beyond subsistence freedom remains an abstraction. 

Following the ceremony inducting him into office, the new United States 
Commissioner of Education, Dr. Sterling M. McMurrin, issued a public state- 
ment. Having placed his accent on quality he concluded — "Education is the road 
to cultural enrichment, to intercultural communication, to worldwide under- 
standing. Most important, education is the road to genuine freedom — the free- 
dom and dignity of the individual." 

In its first fifty years the College of Forestry, set in the midst of the life of a 
great University, has kept its accent on quality. It has played a vital part in 
the life of our state and our nation in science, industry, recreation, and government. 

Across the next fifty years I am confident it will go on to bring an ever richer 
harvest of wealth, dignity, and freedom to our world. 



43 



PART THREE 



CHALLENGES IN THE USE OF 
FOREST RESOURCES 



Challenges in Forest Land Use 

Richard E. McArdle 

Chief, Forest Service 
United States Department of Agriculture 



On this, the Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of the State University College 
of Forestry at Syracuse University, I am honored to address you. 

I praise the founders of this College of Forestry for their foresight so many 
years ago. I respect its students, past and present. I applaud the faculty for 
building a distinguished institution of higher learning, with well- recognized 
standards of excellence. 

Yours is one of the oldest forestry schools in the United States, tfut age in itself 
is no assurance of quality. Nor does a superb physical plant guarantee high 
standards of instruction. 

The faculty provides the key to quality. Individually and collectively, their 
zest, their vision, their maturity, their experience, their ability to stimulate young 
men, and perhaps most of all, their possession of those virtues which in total we 
call character — these are the ingredients of excellence. 

I do not mention technical competence. This you are assumed to have. 
Why do I stress these points? Because to meet the challenges— that is to say, 
to make the most of the opportunities for wise land use, and to deal effectively 
with the competition— for forest land use in the future we must rely heavily 
on the foresters being trained today. 

And so I feel that many of the "challenges" we are to talk about are directed 
primarily to the faculty of this College of Forestry. These are challenges to make 
your plans wisely, to maintain your excellent standards of instruction, and to 
stimulate the young men who come under your influence in their formative years 
for as long as you enjoy that privilege. 

This is why, although the topic assigned to me is "Future Challenges in 
Forest Land Use," I give my comments a subtitle: "Make No Little Plans." 
Your founding date, 1911, is a long time ago. I do not object to taking an 
occasional backward look. But as President Kennedy said in his Inaugural 
Address, "The world is very different now." We must accept conditions as they 
are now, not as they may have been. And we must look ahead another half century 
to a world even more different than our world of today. The challenges of forest 
land use are not those of years past but of today and the years ahead. 

"From the beginning of civilization, every nation's basic wealth and prog- 
ress has stemmed in large measure from its natural resources. This Nation 
has been, and is now, especially fortunate in the blessings we have inherited. 
Our entire society rests upon— and is dependent upon— our water, our 

47 



land, our forests, and our minerals. How we use these resources influences 
our health, security, economy, and well being. 

"But if we fail to chart the proper course of conservation and development 
— if we fail to use these blessings prudently — we will be in trouble within 
a short time." 

Here in a few words from the President's recent message to Congress on natural 
resources is the challenge of our times to those of us whose life work is man- 
agement of natural resources. 

Imagine that you are looking at a map of our country. Here is all the land 
we have. Since we are not an aggressor nation, this is all the land we are likely 
ever to have. From this land we must obtain almost all our food, our clothing, 
our shelter, the fuel to warm that shelter and to cook our food. From this land 
we must in addition obtain the raw materials of industry to manufacture those 
things that m^:e life more pleasant, more than mere existence. Except for the 
seas around us there is no other place to obtain these basic necessities of life. 

By the end of this century — a short four decades away — our country will have 
twice as many people as we have today. There will be twice as many stomachs 
to fill, twice as many bodies to clothe, shelter, and warm. We shall need more of 
everything — more food, fiber, timber, water, minerals, energy, fuels, outdoor 
recreation — more of everything that in large part can be had only from land. 

All of these greatly increased needs must be met from the same total area 
of land that we have today. 

Actually, we shall have less land from which to obtain these necessities of 
life. Productive land — land capable of producing food, fuel, shelter, clothing, 
and raw materials for industry — increasingly is being diverted to other uses: 
to superhighways, airports, urban development, for national defense, to name 
only a few. Every acre so diverted throws just that much more burden on the 
remaining acres. 

Unfortunately, too, not all of our land is capable of producing these neces- 
sities of life. We have many millions of acres of desert and low-quality land, 
more millions of acres too high, too cold, too rocky, or too wet to justify 
inclusion in our productive base. We cannot afford to think only in terms of 
total acres. We must focus our attention on productive acres. 

We speak of challenges as the central theme of our discussions. Yet I do not 
care for the word, with its implication of a summons to a contest. The only 
contest is to overcome our own inertia. 

We are a peace-loving and proud people, blessed by a bountiful nature and 
pledged to high standards. In natural resources, as in other resources, we are 
not weak; and we need not be insecure. With renewed effort and with public 
attention, we shall assure an abundance of natural resources for America, and 
with this abundance our civilization will prosper. 

In the few years that I have been Chief of the Forest Service, I have given 
more than half a hundred major talks. The theme of many of these has been 
directed toward the future. To name a few: "Opportunities and Goals for Forest 

48 



Management," "Trends in Forestry in the South," "Timber Resources for 
America's Future," "Timber on the Horizon," "Water, Forests and People," 
"The Sixties — Decade of Decision," "Horizons Unlimited," and so on. 

Why have these talks been so oriented? I have hoped in my small way to 
stir the public's imagination, to stimulate our forest scientists, to give encourage- 
ment and strength to the forest industries, to impart some knowledge to our 
students, and to create confidence in the public service. This has been my personal 
challenge — one of faith and leadership. 

Today we are assembled at this Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration to hear eminent 
men talk about forest resources, forest production, new wood uses, fibers and 
molecules, and forestry education. It is my earnest hope that in these discussions 
we will throw off the bonds of conservatism, escape the shackles of tradition, 
and explore in a broader spectrum than usually occurs when professionals talk 
with fellow professionals about conservation of natural resources. 

Let us consider water for a moment. Water is one of the most valuable products 
of forest lands. In large measure the challenges, the opportunities, for wise use 
of forest lands reflect our opportunities for obtaining adequate supplies of usable 
water. We foresters have been indoctrinated in the merits of erosion- and flood 
control through protection of upstream watersheds. Only of late has our thinking 
turned to watershed management in the sense of affecting in a positive manner 
the yield, the quantity, of water. We have in the past been concerned mainly 
with the quality of water, which is a product of watershed protection, and but 
little with quantity, which is the end result of watershed management. We are 
going to have to think more and more about quantity of water as well as quality. 
In many places water is becoming the chief limiting factor in further urban 
and industrial expansion. Our cities are reaching out further and further, some- 
times for hundreds of miles, to obtain increased supplies of water. The conver- 
sion of salt water to fresh is being endlessly explored, and some day science will 
make this process both practical and economical. 

What effect will such discoveries have on the need to adjust land uses to water 
needs? As a practical matter, how far inland may converted sea water be trans- 
ported? In what manner and to what degree will this possibility of the future 
affect today our long-range planning for forested lands, and especially our 
priorities for forest land use? 

This is the kind of land-use problem that poses a challenge to the ingenuity 
of our scientists and should shake us foresters out of our classic patterns of 
thinking. 

I'll give you another example. Forest recreation is the idol of the moment. 
It has the attention of legislators, of State and local governments, of study com- 
missions, and of universities. People are flocking to the out-of-doors in unprece- 
dented numbers. Why? 

The influx is more than can be explained simply by population expansion. 
Is the phenomenon that we are experiencing a passing fad, or is it the beginning 
of something much more permanent? 

49 



I think a significant factor could well be that in our free society the low and 
middle-income groups have begun to find a new source of spiritual fulfillment 
hitherto available primarily to the well-to-do. The usual explanations are the 
prosaic ones of better roads, the automobile, and more leisure time. But perhaps 
there are other more fundamental reasons such as higher costs of more luxurious 
types of recreation. There is also the undeniable fact that the middle-income 
segment of our population is becoming a larger and larger proportion of the total. 

Half a century ago we were mainly a rural people. Today the situation is 
exactly reversed and we have become a nation of city dwellers. In the ever- 
growing competition for use of forest land is it not logical that we ask ourselves 
if a preponderance of city dwellers doesn't mean that outdoor recreation — some 
way to escape the pressures of crowded living — has also become one of the 
necessities of life? 

Should the great popularity of outdoor recreation continue, and I think it will, 
there will be posed real problems of competition for forest land use, of program- 
ing, of multiple-use land management, of financing, including cost-sharing by 
the beneficiaries, and questions of institutional responsibility. These problems 
will test the skills of administrators and the wisdom of policy makers. Again — 
a challenge for wise use of natural resources and especially of forest resources. 

This ever-growing competition for land is going to make foresters adjust their 
traditional thinking. We see everywhere great urban expansions — communities 
pushing back the forest in the same way but on a vastly larger scale than happened 
three hundred years ago when our forefathers settled this country. A huge 
ten-year highway program is under way. Transmission lines for electrical power, 
for oil and gas, are spreading across the land. Despite the promise of saline 
water conversion we can expect continued large withdrawals of forest land for 
reservoirs of all kinds. 

Land will continue to be needed for national defense, for atomic energy, and 
similar purposes. 

There are tremendous pressures to set aside timberlands for parks or other 
specialized recreational use. One estimate forecasts an increase in forest land 
used as parks and wildlife refuges from about twenty-seven to forty-seven million 
acres by the year 2000. Another recent proposal is an increase to more than sixty 
million acres in less than ten years. I do not know which estimate is more nearly 
correct. I do know that this is a use of forest land which must have our serious 
consideration. 

There is still another kind of competition for forest land that many of you 
may not have thought about. This is the prospective need of forest land to grow 
food crops. It may seem ironic to talk about needing more land for food pro- 
duction when today we have large surpluses of some agricultural crops. Actually, 
most of the experts dealing with this subject do not forecast any substantial 
change in total acreage devoted to production of food crops, at least not for the 
next fifteen to twenty years. The increases we shall need in the next couple of 
decades can be obtained through widespread application of better management, 

50 



increased use of fertilizers, improvement in plant varieties, and other tech- 
nological advances. 

Although some predictions are that by the end of the century as much as 
seventy-three million acres of forest land may be diverted to food-crop produc- 
tion, the probabilities are that the total diversion of forest land to food crops 
will' be less. A more significant change and one much more certain is diversion 
of the best, the most productive forest land to food crops. The better land will 
go into food crops and the poorer land into forests. The net effect on timber 
production will be substantial. 

In total, the possible further diversion of forest lands for urban development, 
parks, reservoirs, food production, and so on could mean that one-fourth of our 
commercial forest land, equal to one-third of our timber-growing capacity, may 
seriously be sought for other purposes within the next few decades. 

National policy on these competitive needs for forest land may very likely 
be determined for the most part fairly soon. The outcome of these issues cannot 
fail to have a significant long-range effect on forestry and forest-land use. This 
is one of the destiny decisions of our times. Call it a challenge if you wish. 
The competition for forest land inevitably brings with it an ever-growing 
need for greater intensity of management. This is why the Forest Service sub- 
scribes so heartily to multiple use as the best practice of management for most 
of the publicly owned forest lands in the United States. 

Multiple use helps to overcome problems of scarcity. It tends to reduce or 
resolve conflicts of interest and competition for resources. It promotes balance 
in resource use. It impedes the ascendancy of single-interest pressures. Properly 
applied, multiple use involves consideration of both aesthetic and economic 
criteria in arriving at management decisions. It offers balance between material- 
istic and nonmaterialistic values. 

Multiple use is being extended in varying degree to other public and to 
privately owned forest lands, mainly those in the larger ownerships. A major 
policy question of our time is to what extent Federal and State educational, 
technical, and other assistance programs should encourage multiple use on the 
smaller forest ownerships. 

Heretofore, public stimuli focused on such lands have been directed primarily 
to growing more and better timber. Nowadays foresters need to think in 
broader terms. 

Concepts of forestry by foresters urgently need to be broadened. Failure to 
do so will continue to exclude foresters from many of the policy decisions of 
today that affect the use of forest land for the tomorrows. Now, as in the past, 
I firmly believe that most such policy decisions are made not by foresters, but by 
legislators, executives, financiers, engineers, and y men of other disciplines and 
orientation. If ever there is a challenge to foresters, it is to escape from narrow 
technocracy and to engage actively in the practice of political science and 
business management. 

51 



Another of forestry's greatest handicaps is the difficulty of attracting public 
notice. In part, this is because foresters must deal largely in terms of a distant 
future. Problems of immediacy get the attention and the money. Problems of 
the future compete poorly. But compete we must. 

To compete effectively we must make the public understand its dependence 
on forests. This is another of the great challenges in natural resources — the 
competition for public understanding. 

Let me pause for a moment to explain what I mean by "the public" and to 
examine its vital connection to leadership. 

The public in my opinion is that nebulous body which is everybody. The 
public most often makes its will felt negatively in what it will not tolerate. 
Rarely does the public provide leadership for affirmative and creative action; 
but it does respond to leadership from its officers who have the means to know 
and the responsibility and competence to lead. It would be brash indeed, for 
example, to assume that the public really understands the technical facts of 
atomic energy, the treatment of cancer, the essentiality of water, or the details 
of forestry and therefore will develop the programs needed in the public interest. 
Public opinion, if uninspired, uninformed, and undirected by responsible and 
conscientious leaders, can drift toward what is not good for the Nation. 

To those of us who serve the public that is everybody, I say let us always be 
willing to discuss, but let us never hesitate to lead. Leadership, too, is one of 
our major challenges, one that should not, must not, be dodged. 

I call your attention to one more challenge in use of land for forestry purposes. 
Our institutional arrangements for forestry are certain to be reassessed from 
time to time. I mean our system of National and State Forests, and the balance 
between public and private forest land. The pattern of forestry responsibility 
between State and Federal Governments is quite different in the United States 
than among our Canadian neighbors to the North and among many other coun- 
tries. Assignment of responsibility within a given level of government for the 
management of certain lands or for functional responsibilities is likewise subject 
to periodic reassessment. 

The established pattern of private forest land ownership with three-fourths 
of all privately owned forest land split into millions of small holdings is an 
accepted pattern in this country, but recognized as unfavorable to the practice 
of forestry. What, if anything, should and can be done to overcome the problem 
of smallness? 

In summation, I have tried to tell you what to me are some of the imposing 
problems that we must solve if our people are to have resources for the future. 
Among them are how to compete for public attention and all that goes with it; 
how to double our water yield and triple our power capacity in the next twenty 
years; how to control water and air pollution and convert salt water to fresh; 
how to accommodate great increases in needs for both outdoor recreation and 
timber ; how to provide leadership to our people, impart knowledge to our youth, 
and stimulate our scientists ; how to meet immensely stiff er competition for land 

52 



and space; how to best arrange our institutional patterns in order to serve our 
people well; how to think creatively; how to shake the bonds of tradition and 
to plan wisely; and last but not least, how our profession can engage effectively 
in shaping the policies of today that in turn mold the framework of tomorrow. 
These are not problems or "challenges" of mere academic interest. These 
are problems that must be solved if we as a people expect to live well, perhaps 
to live at all. These are urgent problems and they are big problems. We must 
make plans big enough to fit these needs. I leave with you these words of 
Daniel Burnham: 

"Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood and probably 
themselves will not be realized. Make big plans. Aim high in hope and 
work, remembering that a noble logical diagram once recorded will never 
die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing asserting itself with 
ever-growing insistency." 



53 



Future Demands for Recreation and Space 

Laurance S. Rockefeller 

Chairman 

Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission 



I would like to say how pleased I am to take part in this discussion under the 
chairmanship of Director Conrad Wirth. As the head of the National Park 
Service, he has shown an unusual ability to get things done consistent with the 
Park Law safeguarding our heritage of nature and wildlife for the enjoyment 
of future generations. His objectivity and factual approach serve him well in 
his job. 

My assignment today provides an opportunity to make a most encouraging 
report. And in connection with it, I would like to pay tribute to the people and 
leaders of New York State — the ones who have made this report possible. 

The State Commissioner of Conservation, Harold Wilm ; the President of the 
State Council of Parks, Robert Moses; and the Governor, my brother Nelson, 
worked together in developing the $75,000,000 bond issue program for acqui- 
sition of new park and recreation lands. The people of New York clearly under- 
stood the need for action before the lands were swallowed up for other uses. 
They voted nearly four to one in favor of the program. 

It now appears that New York State is not the only beneficiary. The big vote 
in favor of the bond issue is having profound and significant effects outside 
the State. 

The vote demonstrated that people see the need for more outdoor recreation 
places, they want them, are prepared to support sound programs that will pro- 
vide them and, what's most important, are willing to pay for them. The margin 
of victory here in New York changed the minds of many public officials across 
the country who had felt that providing funds for outdoor recreation was not a 
popular cause. 

Bond issues and other measures for outdoor recreation now are being proposed 
in other states: California, Maryland, New Jersey, Utah, and Wisconsin, among 
others. These developments undoubtedly are being followed with deep interest 
by the Kennedy administration and members of Congress. 

All these indications of popular support have given heart to the leaders in 
the campaign for more outdoor recreation facilities. They give new meaning to 
the President's commendable emphasis on physical fitness, which has already 
stirred the American people. The two programs— outdoor recreation and physical 
fitness— dovetail perfectly. And I am happy to say that the precedent set by 
New York last fall will also add greatly to the prospects for implementing the 
recommendations which the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission 
will be making some months from now. 

54 



RECREATION DEMANDS WILL CONTINUE TO INCREASE 

My assignment is to deal with the subject of future demand for outdoor 
recreation and the space required to meet that demand, and the challenge this 
represents in the use of our forest resources. 

There are great pressures on neighborhood and day-use outdoor recreation 
places. The supply of them is short and growing shorter in and around urban 
areas where most of the American people live. There also are pressures for longer 
stays in mountain areas, forests, at seashores and other beach and water areas. 
And future needs will require opening up more of them to recreation. 

Basic social and economic forces will certainly increase these pressures on out- 
door space for recreation. Increasing demand must inevitably come from a growing 
population with greater personal "income and mobility, and somewhat more 
leisure time. 

With the anticipated growth in population, even a modest increase in free 
time will step up the pressures for outdoor recreation enormously. 

Nothing short of catastrophe could alter the nation's growth in people and 
their ability to earn more by means of more efficient production machines. As for 
mobility, which determines where we go and how fast we get there, the future 
seems to promise great things — at least for everyone but commuters in our 
metropolitan areas. There also is agreement that time for leisure will increase 
over the next several decades — although by how much is a big question. 

While long-range forecasting about leisure is understandably risky, carefully 
drawn estimates indicate a modest rise in free time for the wage earner. For 
example, a California study looking ahead to 1980 projects that his leisure time 
will increase by about four and one-half hours per week in that state. This con- 
trasts with speculation which has the work week cut in half. 

Recreation demand on our public and private forests reflects the general surge 
toward outdoor recreation by the American people. It presents its own complex 
of problems because the activities occur in woodlands which must also support 
other functions. And some special problems involving management and facilities 
exist because a sizable proportion of the visitors remains within the forests for a 
week or more. 

Despite the special problems, our forests are part and parcel of our open 
space resources. 

To the four factors I have mentioned— population, income, mobility and leisure 

time can be added another important one: Man's inherent need for open space. 

The spread of urbanization (surely a mixed blessing, to say the least) accentuates 
man's spiritual need of the outdoors. Urban man, if he is to be healthy, must 
develop what Luther Gulick has summed up as an awareness of "his relationship 
to the world of nature." 

This awareness is important in itself, for it can help gain the support necessary 
to transform the need for recreation places into programs, public and private, 
that will provide for those needs. The best illustration of this is the overwhelming 

55 



approval of the park and recreation lands bond issue last November. The citizens 
of New York State were very much aware of the needs. 

FOREST RECREATION AND MULTIPLE USE 

Forest areas are experiencing a great increase in recreation use. And all signs 
point to more of the same since the forests, and the streams and lakes within 
them, are prime places for hunting, fishing, swimming, boating, hiking, camping, 
skiing, picnicking, sightseeing and quiet contemplation. 

There is a fact of key importance which a U.S. Forest Service expert has summed 
up in these words: 

"Except for hunting, space in forests managed for timber production is little 
used by recreationists. For this reason these forests provide one of the best areas 
for expansion of recreation space." 

This fact is often submerged by figures which tend to give an impression of 
rather full recreation use of our forest resources. 

Properly handled, forest recreation activities blend with the other functions 
of woodland. These include the watershed function and timber production, and 
support of wildlife and grazing. Of course not all of these are compatible at every 
spot in the forest at the same time. But they can be made compatible by intelli- 
gent management. For example, camping and fishing can proceed in one section 
while timber is being cut in another. 

This, of course, is the principle of multiple use in action. Recreation has only 
recently been officially recognized as one of the multiple uses in our National 
Forests, although it has been a fact of life for many years. To make recreation 
an equal partner, the Forest Service is moving to catch up with this demand on 
its facilities. 

State-owned forest lands represent a small segment of our total forest resources 
although they are an important factor in some states, primarily in the Far West. 
The uses to which they are put vary from management demonstration work to 
full-scale multiple use. Certainly pressures will be increasing to expand their 
recreational role. 

In our privately- owned forests, the acceptance of a recreational role is relatively 
new. Its potential significance is great, particularly in the East and South where 
public lands are in short supply. 

It seems obvious that the practice of multiple use will have to be expanded to 
meet future demands on our forest. And here I refer to the demands for water, 
lumber, forage and wildlife cover as well as recreation. Meeting them will require 
more intensive management, with the conservation measures implicit in such 
management. 

It will also require the development of heretofore neglected forest areas — 
not the National Parks where lumbering is out-of-bounds, but woodlands which 
have been somehow overlooked. West Virginia, for example, has many idle 
forests in private hands whose potential for recreation alone would seem to 
justify development. 

56 



And it will require the good will and cooperation of all interested parties: 
Water users, commercial lumbermen, conservation groups, wildlands specialists, 
the recreation-seeking public, the local, state and federal agencies which are 
concerned with all the uses. 

THE NATIONAL FORESTS AND PRIVATE FORESTS 

As I have noted, the National Forest Service now is dedicated to the multiple 
use principle. Its Operations Multiple Use, already under way, is providing 
valuable new facilities for recreation as well as improvements in all the other 
categories of National Forest use. 

It is a far-sighted program covering, in one way or another, the National 
Forests which exist in thirty-nine of our states, including Alaska, and the Com- 
monwealth of Puerto Rico. Together these Forests comprise 181 million acres. 

The Forest Service estimates the number of recreation visits will double by 
1970, to reach a total of 130 million a year. People will come to picnic, camp, 
hunt, fish and ski, and — as the Service has said in a poetic moment — "to sit and 
dream, to be close to the land and the wonderful things of nature." 

The impressive acreage of our National Forests supports more than a third 
of the nation's big game. In the Forests, also, flow 81,000 miles of streams, and 
there are more than two million acres of natural lakes and impounded waters 
serving recreation and other uses. 

Out of these same Forests come nine billion board feet of timber a year. 
The Forest Service hopes to raise the yield over the current decade to at least 
eleven billion board feet. I would hope that with intelligent management this 
goal can be reached without upsetting the harmony of Nature or doing violence 
to those who seek solitude in the woods. 

There also are encouraging developments in the private forest sector. The 
chief forester for the American Forest Products Industries, James G. McClellan, 
has said: "Use of forest land for recreational purposes is an important part of 
the multiple-use management program which forest industries are following." 

This represents a notable forward step. It is encouraging to those of us who 
feel keenly about the importance of outdoor recreation in America's future. 

The forest lands to which Mr. McClellan refers total more than sixty-two 
million acres. According to a survey by the industry association, by far the greater 
part of them, and the streams within them, are open to the public. While the 
degree of recreational use varies greatly in these privately- owned forests, the 
association reports six million recreation visits to them last year. 

I would like to quote from a speech on this subject by an official of one of the 
largest timber companies. He cites the decision by many lumber, pulp and paper 
companies to accept recreation seekers and make some provision for them. He 
goes on to say: "This important change in attitude on the part of these com- 
panies has developed largely since the war as the result of a tremendous recreation 
expansion taking place throughout the country." 

57 



He adds: "Companies have found it impossible to keep swarms of recreation 
seekers off their lands and so have decided to turn what was becoming a tre- 
mendous liability because of increasing numbers of fires and vandalism into a 
public relations asset. To say the least, the new attitude has resulted in developing 
a tremendous bank of good will on the part of the recreation-using public." 

To my mind, this is an enlightened point of view by companies wise enough 
to face the facts realistically, and with the public interest in mind. And the 
record seems to show that fire losses and vandalism actually have been reduced 
on the private lands open to an appreciative public. 

THE OUTDOOR RECREATION 
RESOURCES REVIEW COMMISSION 

After hearing this report one might be tempted to say all's right with our 
recreation prospects as far as the forests are concerned. However, such assurance 
could be misleading. It's a good start but much more needs to be done. The 
indications are that both the Forest Service and private companies will be called 
upon to provide for more recreation seekers than they anticipate. So it appears, 
anyway, when your responsibility is to gauge the needs of the American people 
fifteen years from today and at the beginning of the 21st century. 

That is what the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission is attempt- 
ing to do. Congress gave us specific instructions to take the long view, to look as 
far ahead as the year 2000, as well as at the present. The Commission has the 
job of finding answers to these basic questions: 

1 — What are the recreation wants and needs of the American people now and 
what will they be in the years 1976 and 2000? 

2 — What recreation resources does the nation have available to fill those needs? 

3 — What policies and programs should be recommended to insure that the 
needs of the present and future are adequately and efficiently met? 

The Commission expects to find factual answers to questions 1 and 2 in surveys, 
state-by- state inventories and projections being made for us by experts. These 
reports are coming in over the next few months. The 15 Commissioners then 
will develop the recommendations requested by question number three. 

Meanwhile, the Commission and its Advisory Council have been discussing 
many problems including those faced by the forest industries. Members of the 
Council include representatives of industry, various interested groups and govern- 
ment. I am confident that together we will develop realistic proposals as well as 
make available a large amount of information useful to federal, state and local 
governments and to private industry. 

PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES 

So far as forest lands are concerned, the Commission undoubtedly will empha- 
size the need for better utilization on the part of both public and private owners, 
as a means of meeting both present and future demands for recreation. Carrying 
out such a program will add to the foresters' problems in conservation and the 

58 



costs of management and facilities. It will also create unique opportunities 
for service. 

One of the problems is that the compatability of recreation with the other wood- 
land functions still is improperly understood. Certain of the Commission's studies 
deal with this subject. Hopefully, they will point the way to improved oper- 
ating methods. 

Also, it is to be hoped the Commission will develop proposals offering some 
relief for the costs of establishing and maintaining public recreational facilities 
in private forests. Recognition of the landowner's costs is necessary if we are 
going to call upon him to provide what amounts to a public service. 

Among the possibilities is the development of a fair system of user fees 
geared to facilities, such as campsites, boat ramps, children's playgrounds, ski 
lifts, hiking trails and so on. Tax concessions for certain facilities or land use 
is another possibility, as it is unlikely that user fees could be kept reasonable and 
still absorb the expense. 

I would like to suggest, too, that there is real benefit to management in pro- 
viding such facilities. Their very existence steers the visitors to those sections of 
the woods where the forest manager can exercise the supervision necessary for 
the good of both the guests and the forest. 

The cost of public liability insurance has deterred many private forest owners 
from providing for extensive recreation use of their lands. It seems reasonable 
to assume that this problem can be worked out as a public responsibility. 

Happily, experience shows that fire dangers and vandalism do not necessarily 
increase when more people use the woods. Some of the largest companies in 
the forestry business declare that these threats can in a large measure be offset 
by a good sound public education program. That the great majority of our people 
can be educated in this matter has been proved by the success of "Smoky the 
Bear" and similar campaigns. 

Another educational possibility offers an exciting opportunity to public and 
private forest managers to do more than merely provide space for vacationers. 
This is to impart their knowledge of the land, the wildlife, and the principles of 
conservation. 

With the great increase in forest recreation, camping areas and hiking trails 
can serve as natural classrooms for millions of Americans. Conservation, wildlife 
and other organizations can be enlisted to aid in the support and development 
of forest-education programs involving such things as outdoor museums and 
exhibits located in the forests themselves. Vacationers can have their enjoyment 
multiplied many times by knowledge. 

There is a definite need for more forest hiking trails, and better maintenance 
and maps for trails. I believe our park and forest managers are incorrect when 
they say the public won't use them, and I expect that careful studies now being 
made will substantiate my view. In a very real way, hiking trails are a practical 
aspect of multiple use because they are valuable in fire prevention and fire fighting. 

59 



In closing, I would like to emphasize what is, for me, a most important point. 
Ever-increasing recreation needs should not be cause for dismay. Wise planning 
and use can meet the problems arising from the demand of the American people 
for a place in the outdoors. We here, who love and enjoy the outdoors, should 
welcome the newcomers to the forest. Its benefits can only help to make us a 
stronger, happier people. 



60 



The Future Demand for Wood 

William A. Duerr 

Chairman, Department of Forestry Economics 
State University College of Forestry 



When the subject arises of the future demand for this or that, the talk is apt to 
turn to the long-discussed upward trend in our population. 

CONSUMERS UNLIMITED 

Thomas Malthus, who published his Essay in 1798, founded a line of pessimists 
who have taken a dim view of what man, in all his fertility, was doing to the 
earth, to the balance of nature, and incidentally to himself. Across from Malthus 
has sprung up the party of optimists, who see population growth as a multiplying, 
not so much of mouths, as of hands and brains. These optimists are the heralds 
of the abundant life: the third family car, the indelible advertising slogan, the 
unpaid bill, the buckling attic, the proper use of leisure time. 

It has become fashionable for speakers on demand to pause in their talk and 
issue a bulletin on the number of new births since they took the rostrum. For 
long-winded speakers, the number may run into thousands. A professor at Illinois 
recently computed from trends of the past 2,000 years that human numbers will 
approach infinity in 2026. Then, man will find Doomsday, not by starvation, but 
by being squeezed to death. That forecaster, optimist that he is, should not have 
overlooked the chance that man's bulging cupboards will beat him in the race 
toward infinity and thus will quietly snuff him out while he and his family, in 
the ultimate act of togetherness, are studying the TV commercials for new ideas. 

If the deluge is to be of goods and services more than of people, then the 
question of the future demand for wood gains special meaning: With what portion 
of wood will man in his last hours choose to surround himself? Will he wish 
to be enfolded in a lumber and plywood home? Perhaps, in deference to the 
multiple-use idea, he will choose to be smothered in an avalanche of assorted 
timber, water, forage, wildlife, and recreational services. 

In any case, the contents of the fatal cornucopia will surely be fitted to con- 
sumers' tastes and preferences. The question, then, of future wood demand re- 
quires merely forecasting the likes and dislikes of consumers, who are as un- 
eccentric, unimpulsive, and unenigmatic as may be. The task is the easier if one 
supposes that wood will have become as well entrenched in advertising as other 
commodities and that the contending hucksters will be at a standoff. Advertising 
will, of course, contribute to the affair through its use of wood as paper. Or 
should we question if paper will still be made from wood in that future time? 
And should we question what altogether new products, of wood and otherwise, 
will be competing for the favor of those unlimited consumers? 

61 



LIFE IN THE WOODS 

Before such issues I propose to retreat after the manner of Henry David 
Thoreau. I will take to the woods. There I will study future demand from a 
forester's view: in terms of the potential timber output, which sets an effective 
limit upon demand and is, indeed, the woods counterpart of effective demand. 
In the long run, how much timber per year can we expect landowners to produce 
on a continuing basis from young-growth forests? This potential timber output 
rests on determinants which, though not all readily predictable, are generally 
more stable and foreseeable than those that govern the consumer's behavior. 
Broadly speaking, there are just tv/o determinants: the amount and kind of land 
devoted to timber growing, and the intensity of the timber management. 

As for the land given over to timber growing, this is the outcome of competi- 
tion among land uses: in general, forest as against nonforest uses; and within 
the forest, the timber use as against uses that exclude timber cutting. 

As for timber-management intensity, this the forest owner decides. If he is 
to make the fullest use of his resources, then his timber management will depend 
on the values he expects to create and the sacrifices he expects to make in creating 
them. The values and sacrifices in question are of two quite different kinds. 

One kind is the owner's return and cost upon the wood-producing machine: 
the growing stock of trees, or timber capital. The return is the increase in capital 
value through growth of wood or a rise in its price or changes in related values 
such as scenic values and tax changes. The cost is that of holding the capital. 
This cost arises in the owner's opportunity to liquidate part of his timber and 
use the resulting funds in some alternative way, as for new investment or for 
consumption. The alternative rate of return on the funds invested in timber 
capital therefore measures the cost of holding this capital. Figured net of expenses 
such as the income tax and adjusted for comparative risk, the alternative rate of 
return is a guiding rate, fashioned to the owner's circumstances and ready for 
his use — his explicit or implicit use — in judging the wisdom of any timber 
investment. 

Taken together, the value growth of timber and the owner's guiding rate of 
return largely determine the quantity and value of timber growing stock that 
the thinking owner will want to hold and the age and size to which he will want 
to grow his trees. That is, they largely control his investment in wood-producing 
plant, which in great measure sets the intensity of his timber management. 

However, there is a second kind of value and cost that does have a bearing 
on the intensity of an owner's practice. This is the prospective price of his timber 
crop in relation to his expense of production other than holding the timber 
capital. The expense is mainly that of labor, together with such machines, supplies, 
and the like as may be used with the labor. Among the timber-management 
practices that a thinking owner is apt to adjust to the price-expense prospect 
are forest seeding and planting, soil fertilization, and forest protection from 
fire and other enemies. The intensity of his protection efforts is of course influenced 
by his judgment of non-timber as well as timber values of the forest. 

62 



The foregoing line of thought relates wood production to certain determinants 
of land use and timber management. Pursuing this line, I now propose to derive 
a specific estimate of long-run potential timber output in the United States. The 
data available to me are in some cases good enough, but in others meager. They 
are weak as regards the productivity of our forest sites under silviculture. Conse- 
quently such value as my analysis may have rests not so much in the results as in 
the method. The method, as I have pointed out, is to bypass the imponderables 
of product development and consumer taste and focus upon the discernibles in 
forest management. I mean to show that in the long run the latter have the 
overriding influence upon our national timber consumption. And I propose to sug- 
gest what items of information are needed for a sensible forecast of consumption. 

First I will state my assumptions and predictions. I will not go into the detail 
of how they were calculated. Then I will talk about what my findings imply for 
forest policy in the long view and in the short. 

POTENTIAL TIMBER OUTPUT 

At the time I am speaking of — namely, at the soonest time when a young- 
growth timber potential could be reached — changes in land use will have taken 
place. The area of farmed lands will be somewhat smaller than today. Transporta- 
tion and power developments will take up somewhat more room. The two 
greatest changes, both amounting to more than a doubling of present acreage, 
will be in cities and in recreational areas. All such changes considered, less than 
450 million acres of land will be available for timber growing, as against today's 
490 million acres. 

Privately owned commercial forest will be further concentrated in big proper- 
ties, at the expense mainly of the small nonfarm and the medium-size private 
holdings. Public ownership will remain largely unchanged except for the effects 
of reservation for noncommercial use. 

Guiding rates of return in timber management will vary widely with forest 
ownership. Three groups of owners may be distinguished: first, conservative 
owners, notably the federal government and large corporations, with an average 
guiding rate of 3 per cent; second, exploitive owners, mainly small private 
owners, whose guiding rates will average between 12 and 14 per cent; third, 
intermediate owners such as state and local governments and middle-size private 
owners, whose rates will be about 6 per cent. The weighted average of the guiding 
rates for all commercial forests will also be close to 6 per cent. 

The federal income tax, despite praiseworthy efforts of reformers, will continue 
to subsidize private forestry. The general property tax will come to be administered 
without penalty against forest conservation. 

Timber prices, though at times they will have risen relatively to the general 
price level, will stand without prospect of continuous change in either direction, 
at an average of about twice the relative prices of recent years. This assumption 
about the price level will prove to have little bearing on the estimate of potential 
output. 

63 



There will be value premiums upon trees of larger size, primarily because of 
cost savings in logging, transporting, and processing. In general, these premiums 
will be such that trees will become merchantable when they reach a breast-high 
diameter of five inches, and thereafter the value of their merchantable section, 
extending to a four-inch top, will be proportional to its volume by the Inter- 
national log rule, y 4 -'mch kerf allowed. 

Forestry technology will have advanced so as to reduce costs. New strains of 
trees will not have been widely introduced, so that there will be no great differences 
from today's growth rates on this account. However, methods of artificial regenera- 
tion and of partial cutting will have been improved to the point that most conserva- 
tive and intermediate forest owners can afford to use them. Transportation, not 
necessarily limited to ground systems, and the growth of population will be such 
as to minimize variations in forest accessibility. Forest protection will be intensified 
so that non-salvable timber losses will be negligible. 

Under the foregoing assumptions, the long-run potential output of merchantable 
timber in the United States is roughly twenty billion cubic feet per year, expressed 
in terms of roundwood. One may grasp the meaning of twenty billion cubic feet 
with the help of a few comparisons. The amount is about 60 per cent greater than 
our annual consumption in the last few years, including the roundwood equivalent 
of our imports. On the other hand, it is 25 to 30 per cent less than the "realizable 
growth" estimated by the United States Forest Service in its most recent national 
appraisal of the timber situation, the Timber Resource Review. The figure of 
twenty billion cubic feet underruns (by 10 per cent) the medium projection of 
"demand" for wood from all sources estimated in the Timber Resource Review 
for the year 2000. This year is about four decades off — a good bit nearer than 
the long run of which I am speaking. The comparison perhaps suggests that to 
"demand" is one matter, but to get what one "demands" is another. 

What sort of thing is this timber potential? Does it really represent demand? 
Is it a goal for forest policy? Is it a goal that can be reached? Is it subject to change? 

THE LONG VIEW 

To take up the last question first, consider how the consumption limit fixed 
by the long-run output potential might be bypassed or altered. Suppose we in 
the United States set out to get more timber than this. What could we do about it? 

One measure is to improve the technology of tree growing, as by developing 
more vigorous strains. A second, already in use, is to import. Both these measures 
may well have fairly close limits. A third measure, comparatively unlimited, is 
to increase our substitution of other materials for wood. 

A fourth measure for adjusting timber supplies in the long run is to bid timber 
prices up, relatively to others. Ordinarily this is the way society gets more goods 
from competitive parts of the economy: Its new demand tends to raise the price 
of the thing demanded, and the producers respond by increasing their efforts to 
satisfy demand. However, in the timber-growing game, society's telegraphic signals 
through the market always reach producers as a garbled message, and the latter 

64 



fail to respond as they were meant to. This is because higher demands and timber 
values, although they increase the returns from timber growing, also increase — 
about equally — the principal cost of timber growing, the cost of holding timber 
capital. 

It is true that the continuous prospect of a relatively rising timber price will 
encourage owners to intensify their management. But the prospect implies an 
actual rise, and for prices to keep going up in the long run would put a decisive 
penalty on wood use. 

It is also true that a consummated increase in the timber-price level may change 
land use in favor of timber. Moreover, it gives the landowner some incentive to 
step up his protection effort, improve his site with fertilizer, extend his planting 
or seeding practice, and the like. And yet the main effect of the higher price 
is to undermine consumers' interest and to raise land values. A long-run level 
of timber prices half again as high as the one I assumed would mean an output 
potential little more than 5 per cent greater than the one I arrived at. And 
incidentally, much lower prices would similarly make little difference in the 
potential. 

Here I come to the conclusion that since the amount of wood supplied in the 
long run is so feebly responsive to price, this supply, or potential output, almost 
alone can determine wood consumption. Demand in relation to price, provided 
it is great enough to permit consuming the potential timber output at all, is 
influential only in setting the value of the wood. And so, to a degree, consumers 
are free to put their own price tag on that quantity of wood which growers, 
largely ignoring the tag, will provide anyhow. 

But is there no such thing for timber as long-run demand of the ordinary sort: 
a force that consumers can exert to make their wants known in the economy and 
to get a response from producers? The question suggests a fifth measure for 
adjusting supplies — that is, to increase the long-run timber-output potential by 
lowering timber-owners' guiding rates of return. More timber will eventually 
be grown if heavier growing stocks are carried in the forest, and such stocks can 
rationally be held if the cost of holding them is lightened. Furthermore, all other 
steps in forest management that require waiting for returns (and few do not) 
will be made easier if the guiding rate, which reflects waiting cost, is lowered. 
And more land may be used for timber growing if guiding rates fall. 

The national timber-output potential is responsive to forest owners' guiding 
rates. If the nationwide average rate were to be 5 per cent, just one percentage 
lower than I have supposed in my forecast, then the long-run potential timber 
output would be more than a tenth greater: more than twenty-two billion cubic 
feet per year. If rates averaged a conservative 3 per cent, the potential would be 
close to twenty-seven billion cubic feet. And to add a fanciful footnote to these 
conjectures — if guiding rates were zero, potential output would be above forty 
billion feet: It would equal the physical maximum within the limit of my other 
assumptions. 

65 



In timber's case, then, the long-run demand that counts is that determined by 
society when it judges and tries to influence forest owners' guiding rates of return. 
The rates are our principal means for effectively stating a demand for wood. 
Whatever the rates deemed appropriate by society, the potential output thus set 
becomes a goal for forest policy. 

There are various ways for the nation to lower guiding rates of return in timber 
management. For instance, we can swallow our traditional esteem for small-scale 
land proprietorship and encourage the shifting of forest land from less into more 
conservative hands, either through outright purchase or through leasing. We can 
reduce the risks of timber management and marketing, as through research to 
replace speculation with facts. We can, in effect, reduce guiding rates by means 
of regulation or subsidy — but here it should be noted that beyond a point we 
would be forcing overinvestment in forests by comparison with other resources, 
decreasing the benefits from our national capital as a whole — that is, lowering its 
productivity in a broad sense. 

It has often been observed that guiding rates of return are generally lower 
among the forest owners with the higher income. Such owners are under less 
immediate pressure to consume their income. They can put by a good deal of it, 
for they are able to attach more weight to future values. It may be supposed that 
as our economy grows and the disadvantaged sections come abreast of the others, 
this alone will serve to intensify timber management. To be sure, it will unless 
our rising income is attended by a diminishing propensity to save. We live in a 
time of extraordinary commercialism. Every successful advertisement, whether for 
tinned orange juice or chromed transportation, gives rise to demands for immediate 
consumption that compete with long-run conservation and make it more difficult 
for the nation to work toward intensive forestry. 

Now to return to the question of wood demand in the long run — is there a 
simple answer? There is, I think, an inescapable answer. The greatest amount of 
domestic wood that the nation will want to see consumed is the amount that we 
can produce and still keep our national capital as productive as possible. Depend- 
ing on the trend of our propensity to save and on our success at risk-reduction 
in forestry, and assuming no great changes in wood-growing technology, the 
amount in question, in terms of my rough estimates, is between twenty and per- 
haps twenty-four billion cubic feet per year. 

THE SHORT VIEW 

So much for the long run, which is, after all, a great way off and in most 
respects less exciting than the near future. What thoughts about the near future 
may be drawn from the long-run analysis? 

Consider the problem of reaching the potential timber output from the starting 
point of today's forests and forest practices. The potential is higher than today's 
growth, so that to reach the potential will require building up growing stocks 
of young timber. The potential is also higher than today's cut, so that to reach 
the potential will call for increasing the drain on growing stocks. Here is a 

66 



dilemma in the making: a goal that necessitates both raising and lowering stocks. 
The fact is that not only do our demands for tin and chrome compete with timber 
conservation, but so do our demands for timber itself. 

The brunt of the dilemma is likely to be borne by the exploitive class of small 
private forest holdings, the class widely viewed with alarm and called the crux 
of the forest problem in the United States. 

Many of us know of some forest locality where an industrial concern is busy 
repairing its own forest lands: cutting its growing stocks only lightly so as to 
let them build up. Meanwhile the concern is buying most of its wood raw 
material from nearby farmers and so making a heavy drain on the farm woods. 
In this locality, then, farm woodland exploitation is the means for industrial 
forest conservation. What a predicament if the farmers insisted on being more 
conservative! Just so, we should face a national predicament if all forest owners 
should become ardent conservationists at once, or if society should try to set 
very high goals for the future or should try to reach goals quickly. 

Hence the small, exploitively managed private forest holding is in a sense not 
a national problem in forest conservation, but a national instrument for forest 
conservation. All hail the little owner and his bad practices! 

However, the quality of material that the little owner can contribute to the 
national wood basket is, on the whole, poor by today's standards. For a higher- 
quality means of sustaining wood output while we work toward larger goals 
for the future, there are the supplies of old-growth Western timber. To speed up 
the liquidation of these supplies would yield a three-fold advantage: It would 
take some of the pressure off the little holdings. It would arrest the decline in 
quality of current wood output. It would hasten the achievement of a young-growth 
forest economy with a relatively high growth capacity. 

The relation between current and future wood output has its counterpart on 
the consumer's side of the forest. Since consumer preference is controlled in part 
by present and past consumption, high future consumption may require high 
consumption now. Here is perhaps the strongest social incentive for setting 
future wood-consumption goals low enough so that no excessive build-up of 
growing stocks and thus curtailment of consumption will be needed in the 
interim. Otherwise consumer preferences may be lost beyond ready regaining. 

I contended earlier that consumers are free to put their own price tag on 
wood without greatly affecting the amount of it supplied. But surely there are 
limits to consumers' freedom. Very high prices on standing timber will drive 
consumers away from the end products unless unaccustomed progress is made 
in the technology of wood conversion, sufficient to offset the costliness of the 
raw material. On the other hand, very low prices on end products will foster 
wasteful utilization of raw material and even extinguish its value and put it 
out of reach — unless, again, improvements in conversion technology are enough to 
offset the cheapness of the products. 

Technology in much of the forest economy has lagged behind that in other 
industries. If this trend goes on, we have the prospect of reaching, simultaneously, 

67 



values critically high for end products and critically low for raw material. Tech- 
nological backwardness could result in giving the forest preservers and other 
non-timber interests more than they bargain for: the bulk of our forest lands 
all to themselves. We are used to thinking of timber as scarce. But economic 
forces now gathering momentum could change all this: Timber could become 
superabundant relative to the wood-products use that society could afford. 

The preceding thoughts suggest some aims for near-future forest policy : Work 
for the gradual lowering of guiding rates of return in forestry by means of risk 
reduction and other measures consistent with keeping our whole capital fully 
productive. Do what is possible to hold wood values down toward the lowest 
levels consistent with reasonably close timber utilization. Recognize the true 
character of the so-called small-owner "problem," and refrain from wasteful 
crash programs to reform small owners. Encourage faster liquidation of remaining 
old-growth forests not required for non-timber purposes. Promote technological 
progress in the wood-using industries. Encourage wood imports and non-wood 
substitutes to meet demands in excess of an orderly and feasible schedule of 
domestic wood output. 



63 



Future Demands for Water 

Harold G. Wilm 

Commissioner 

New York State Conservation Department 



If this discussion were to be confined to my own topic of future demands, the 
subject would be relatively easy to cover, but might not be very interesting to 
this discriminating audience, because it would be composed largely of statistics — 
statistics on the number of gallons of water used today by various kinds of industry, 
agriculture, and domestic purposes; and the anticipated increases in these uses 
by the "exploding population" we hear so much about. If my topic is combined 
with the idea of challenges in the use of natural resources, however, it becomes 
much broader in scope. It should deal with the general magnitude of water 
demands today, comparing them with available supplies on a national basis, and 
also contrasting demand-supply relationships in different regions of the country. 
Then, of course, it should make some realistic assessment of the future demand- 
supply relationships in different regions of the country, and suggest how serious 
the resulting water management problems may be. Finally, it should suggest a 
few possible solutions. 

THE SITUATION 

In this section of our discussion there are unlimited opportunities for using 
statistics on water supplies and demands — preferably expressed in gallons, so 
that the number of zeros following the few significant figures can be even larger 
than the Federal Budget. Such figures are certainly incomprehensible to the listener, 
and sometimes even to the author ; so that the few water statistics I shall use will 
be expressed simply in inches depth. Thus, if you were standing in an open, 
level field, the thirty inches of average precipitation over the United States would 
hit the average person below the hips, and the thirty-eight inches average for 
New York State would hit him at just about the waist. 

Thinking in terms of the whole country, of course these annual total figures 
on precipitation vary tremendously. In the Mojave Desert of Southern California, 
the average total is only an inch or two. At the other extreme, ninety or more 
inches of annual precipitation are recorded in the higher valleys of the Southern 
Appalachian Mountains and in the far Northwestern United States, particularly 
on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. 

As we think toward water demand, of course precipitation figures are descrip- 
tive, but not very quantitative. The reason is obviously that a large part of the 
precipitation is lost by evaporation. In New York State, almost half of our total 
precipitation is consumed by forests and other vegetation, and by direct evapora- 
tion from the soil and from water surfaces. At the other extreme, in the South- 

69 



western desert countries potential evaporation may reach seventy-five to eighty 
inches — the loss of water, that is, from such limited areas as stream beds, where 
water is always available for evaporation. Therefore available water supplies may 
range from essentially zero to not much more than half of the total precipitation 
anywhere in the United States. 

Complicating this picture is the fact that streams don't run uniformly, and 
precipitation doesn't occur uniformly through the year. Characteristically, there 
is a high flow in streams during the spring of each year, as the result of melting 
snows or winter rains, and during the period before vegetation has developed 
into its fullest leafage. In contrast, the scattered showers and high rates of evapora- 
tion and transpiration in late summer mean comparatively low streamflow in most 
sections of the country. Thus we can say that our available average supply of 
water is poorly distributed, both geographically over the nation and even within 
any given area, and over the various months of the year. 

As this paper was organized, I had before me a volume of statistics on water 
consumption. They are tremendous, especially for such a densely populated, highly 
developed area as New York State. As a matter of fact, the astronomic total of 
all the gallons that are used for industry, public water supply, the generation of 
water power, irrigation, and other purposes far exceeds the total annual precipita- 
tion — to say nothing of the total annual runoff. The reason is simply that these 
figures tell only how much water is diverted from the stream for these various 
uses or pumped from groundwater supplies — but they don't tell how much is 
returned to the streams after it is used. Actually, about 90 per cent of all the water 
that is used goes back into streams and is either re-used or flows into the ocean ; 
on the average, only about 10 per cent is lost by evaporation and transpiration 
directly as a result of human uses. In the West, of course, the so-called "com- 
sumptive" use by evaporation and transpiration is far higher. In Colorado, for 
example, the consumptive use of irrigated crops is around twelve inches ; in the 
hotter portions of the Southwest it may be as high as thirty inches. Such figures 
represent an actual complete loss to further human use. 

From these comments you can see that the whole water supply-demand situa- 
tion is so complicated that it is not easy to present in any simple form. About 
all that can be done is to state one generality: that even at the present time, the 
relation of demand to supply is becoming so critical that, even in the more humid 
regions such as New York State, real water shortages are felt every year in some 
areas, and in many places during very dry years. The use of water for supplemental 
irrigation, especially for vegetable crops, has been increasing by leaps and bounds 
wherever surface water supplies are available in vegetable growing areas. This is 
especially true in New York's Lake Plains counties where precipitation is less than 
other parts of the State, and where growers have discovered that in every growing 
season there are one or more periods during which precipitation is inadequate to 
produce an assured crop of high quality. Many canners and processors now refuse 
to contract in advance for crops to be produced on lands which cannot receive 
supplemental irrigation. 

70 



There are already a number of dramatic examples of the lowering of ground- 
water tables in areas where pumping of groundwater exceeds the available supply. 
An illustration is Long Island, where the Water Resources Commission has to 
exert stringent regulation on any new wells, so as to avoid further depletion of 
groundwater supplies and the encroachment of salt water from the ocean into 
wells on the island. A similar situation occurs on other coastal areas, especially 
southern California, where fresh-ground-water tables have been pulled down so 
far by pumping that there is a real downward gradient from the ocean to the 
groundwater table. There, of course, the ocean slowly moves in toward the wells, 
and the wells become unusable. In southern Arizona around the Phoenix area, 
even the combination of surface water and groundwater supplies is not enough 
to meet present demands. Every year the ground- water table goes down, on the 
average, so that now water is being pumped from depths as great as 150 to 200 
feet or more below the valley surface. Greater pumping depths mean greater 
pumping costs. Therefore, little by little the cheaper crops such as hay go out of 
existence; the acreage of irrigated land becomes smaller; agriculture becomes 
confined to high-priced crops like cotton ; and perhaps almost all agriculture will 
disappear from the valley. Then water will be available only for industrial and 
domestic uses, which can afford a high price. The final step would be stabilization 
of the regional population, so that supplies would equal demand. 

WHAT LIES AHEAD? 

This leads to the question of future demands. Again we have a supply of 
fascinating statistics to work from, dealing with the well-worn cliche "exploding 
population." In making projections toward 1980 or 2000, forecasters seem to be 
going on the assumption that population will continue to rise exponentially, like 
the increase of capital at a high compound interest rate. This means greater 
increases, year after year, until the mathematical end is an increase which 
becomes practically infinite each year. When we use this "end-point" method 
of logic, of course such projections show themselves to be absurd. The typical 
population growth curve is more likely to be S-shaped. For human populations, 
in fact, the growth curve has been a series of connected S's, with repeated periods 
that are essentially horizontal. Such a period we experienced during the great 
Depression of the 1930's, when the Natural Resources Commission predicted 
that the United States population would become completely stabilized: that births 
would equal deaths by I960; and that we should need less schools than in 1936. 

At present we are in a period of prosperity, with young post-war families and 
high birth rates; so the population is increasing rapidly. But all we need now 
would be a real stabilization of our economy, with slowly rising living costs, plus 
the further growth of "planned parenthood." Then we should very rapidly fall 
back to a stabilized population for a while. When we consider limitations on 
water and other resources, too, it is not at all impossible that this plateau might 
be projected much longer than in the past, and that any future growth rates 
would be far slower. 

71 



One more parallel could be drawn between the growth of human populations 
and those of plant and animal communities. Those other segments of the living 
populations of the world, also increase in the typical sigmoid curve. But when 
they get large, often they are brought rapidly down again by some catastrophe 
such as a forest fire or an epidemic. Through science we humans have reduced 
the risk of epidemics greatly, although it does seem that some of the organisms 
that attack human populations are beginning to resist even the most modern of 
our drugs. But science has also created weapons by which we can set up our own 
catastrophe. It is not at all inconceivable that within the next generation or two 
a completely new cycle of population growth may have to become established. 
Because of the genetic effects of radiation it may even be composed of beings 
that are not identical with our present human races. 

Setting aside all of these relative uncertainties, however, it seems most probable 
that for the next twenty to fifty years the demand for natural resources including 
water will continue to increase, although I do not think we should venture 
to predict the rate. These increases will be conditioned in part by a further 
growth of population, and in part also by further demands for water by industry 
and other human uses. 

HOW CAN FUTURE DEMANDS BE MET? 

It has already been indicated that even under present conditions, available 
water supplies barely equal present demands, or even fall considerably short of 
them. I imagine we all agree, also that demands are likely to increase over the 
coming generation or two, although I hope you do not find yourself committed 
to the "explosion" concept. In any event, we have to consider how it will be 
possible to meet future demands for water resources. The various means for 
accomplishing this objective can be summarized in four categories. 

First of these, because it is at present the most widely used, is the storage of 
water so that it may be held for future use or moved to some other point. This 
means, of course, the building of reservoirs, canals, tunnels, and other facilities 
for holding and moving water. Dams and reservoirs are created for flood control, 
which simply means holding back water when we have too much in our streams 
and letting it go when we have much less; for water power development; for 
public water supply; for irrigation of agricultural crops; for recreation; or for 
the improvement of navigation. More and more, reservoir developments are 
planned for a combination of these uses. This invariably means reservoirs of 
large size, simply because these different uses of water are not entirely compatible. 
For flood control alone, for example, it is necessary to keep the reservoir empty 
at all times, so that it may be filled by an excessively high streamflow during a 
flood, and can be emptied as soon as possible thereafter. For water-power genera- 
tion, it is important to have water maintained at some level high enough so that 
its release will supply gravitational force to produce electrical energy in an efficient 
manner. And for domestic use and irrigation, the object is to keep the water 
supply in the reservoir as high as possible so that an ample supply is available 

72 



for times of drought. Closely correlated with the water-power and water supply 
problems are those of recreation, which also demand a considerable pool of 
water, but with the water level varying as little as possible. A conspicuous example 
of a major reservoir that is used for multiple purposes is Lake Mead on the 
Colorado River. Here the large flows of late winter and spring are accumulated, 
and released in a regulated manner to provide water for irrigation in the desert 
valleys below the reservoir, for power generation, for water supplied to the metro- 
politan water district of Los Angeles and other areas, and for widespread recrea- 
tion in the form of boating and fishing. 

The second category of methods for meeting future demands is water conserva- 
tion. This means more efficient use, so that the smallest possible quantities are 
lost by direct evaporation into the atmosphere and are not again available for 
human use. Efficient use also means repeated re-use of the same water, either in 
the same industrial plant or after it has been discharged into a river and is picked 
up downstream. This, of course, is an extremely common form of re-use: one 
city and industry after another picks up water below the ones above it, and uses 
this water for its own purposes. Because the people upstream invariably leave 
the water in poorer shape than they found it, the result is that the downstream 
cities have to treat it in one or more of various ways, to remove bacteria, other 
forms of pollutants, chemicals, and sediment. In rivers like the Hudson, pollution 
is so serious that the City of New York at the downstream end has found it 
necessary to reach over into the headwaters of the Delaware River and into other 
hilly areas to get its supply of drinkable water. This is a disgraceful national 
situation: is there any other genus of animal on the face of the earth, that pur- 
posely befouls the water supplies that are available to its neighbors downstream? 
The solution, of course, is the abatement of pollution. This is becoming a major 
program on a national basis, with increasing assistance from the States and the 
Federal Government to make our rivers and other water bodies more nearly 
fit to use. 

A third means of meeting future demands is the highly popularized conversion 
of salt-water to fresh. The mechanics of these processes are being perfected to a 
point at which such conversion will be practical for industrial and domestic use 
at points close to the supply of salt water. It seems inconceivable, however, that 
such converted water would be economically usable at any appreciable distance 
from the source. Consider, for example, that water from Hoover Dam costs the 
City of Los Angeles nothing at the point it is taken out of the river. The cost 
to the consumer is simply that of amortizing and maintaining the capital invest- 
ment in canals, tunnels, and other appurtenances to move the water from the 
Colorado River to Los Angeles. Even this cost is still substantially below that of 
converting water in a plant right at the source. Thus it is logical that converted 
salt water would become usable for industrial and domestic purposes in and near 
the City of Los Angeles ; but it seems hardly conceivable that it could be moved 
very far east in the southern California valley, and particularly not to such distant 
points as southern Arizona, which are in the most serious need of water. 

73 



The last of our four mechanisms for meeting future demands for water is one 
with which I am most familiar: watershed management. This could really be 
included under the term "conservation," because it means more efficient use of 
available supplies of water. Consider the gap between precipitation and runoff: 
a very large part of that gap is caused by evaporation and transpiration from vegeta- 
tion. Then you immediately have to wonder whether it is not possible to reduce 
the amounts of water consumed by the plant populations of the world, so as to 
make more available for streamflow and ground-water. The mechanism for such 
reduction must, of course, be alteration of the existing vegetation on any areas: 
alteration by reducing the density of the vegetation, or by converting the existing 
communities of vegetation to some other form which would use less water. At 
the same time, any such efforts would have to be in harmony with the needs for 
soil stabilization and flood protection. 

Therefore the problems of watershed management are very complex. They have 
been the subject of intensified research over the last quarter of a century, primarily 
in North America, but also in Europe and Asia. As a result, a series of principles 
have been developed and published repeatedly, which indicate various means by 
which vegetation may be manipulated in order to achieve increased water yields 
from any watershed area or river basin. Knowledge has also been gained as to 
the means by which these techniques can be regulated so as to prevent the occur- 
rence of damaging erosion or floods. An outstanding illustration of the application 
of this knowledge is given by the Salt River Watershed in Arizona, which supplies 
essentially all of the surface and groundwater in the Salt River Valley surrounding 
Phoenix. Here private and public agencies, including the Federal agencies that 
administer the watershed land, are working together on a unique pilot project, 
designed to manipulate watershed vegetation for the purpose of increasing yields, 
while still maintaining soil stability and providing maximum opportunities for 
recreation as well as for the production of wood and forage products. I hope 
that similar projects can be undertaken in other parts of the United States, so 
that this mechanism can be more efficiently used to help meet future demands 
for water. 

FURTHER STUDIES AND LONG-RANGE COMPREHENSIVE 
PLANNING REQUIRED 

Even combining all of these mechanisms, there will come a time in the foresee- 
able future when the balance of water demands with available supplies even under 
the most intensive development will provide at least one mechanism for stabilizing 
the population of the United States. Water supplies are not unlimited; it is 
imperative that we do the very best we can, in the most objective ways possible, 
to use them wisely and well. This will require not only a further build-up of 
knowledge on the various mechanisms for better use ; it will also require intelligent 
and mature cooperation among the people, replacing the many political expedi- 
encies that seem to have dominated water-resource development during the past 
generations. 

74 



Municipalities will no longer be able to go it alone. Neither will industry, 
agriculture or outdoor recreation which is dependent on water resources. 

Although the need for long-range planning on the most comprehensive basis 
has been declaimed by hydrologists and land-use economists so often that it has 
become a familiar refrain in professional circles, it is a need which has yet to be 
translated into effective public action, except in rare instances throughout the 
nation. 

We must think and plan in terms of major watersheds. And we must create 
whatever intra-state, interstate, or interstate-federal machinery is required to carry 
out effective planning and action programs. 

These are formidable tasks. For example, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
and Delaware have struggled for over twenty-five years to establish interstate 
compact machinery for the Delaware River Basin. And yet, it is only in the last 
two years that we have finally been able to draft a new kind of interstate-federal 
compact which appears to provide a practical administrative mechanism. Even now, 
although this compact has been ratified by New York, and is in the legislative 
mills of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware under the best auspices, and 
has been publicly lauded by the Secretary of the Interior for the Federal Govern- 
ment, it is just possible that provincial or federal bureaucratic obstacles may 
cause further delay. 

But as formidable as these tasks may be, I believe that man's necessity to solve 
our water problems, plus ingenuity, new knowledge and good will, make real 
progress certain. We can only hope, and work to the end that it is made as fast 
as our limitations permit. Our success will have much to do with the shape of 
the America of tomorrow. 



75 



Future Demand for Wildlife and Fishing 



John L. Buckley 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 
United States Fish and Wildlife Service 



Future demands for wildlife 1 and fishing, and future supplies of these resources 
depend upon at least the following factors : 

1. The human population — its numbers, distribution, available free time, and 
amount of disposable income. 

2. The demands of this population — for food, fiber, shelter, transportation, 
and other physical needs. 

3. The pattern of land use required to meet these demands and the desires 
and standards of the future human population in terms of outdoor rec- 
reation. 

4. The reaction of wild animal populations to the future pattern of land use, 
especially the increased intensity of use required to provide the maximum 
yield from each acre, and the lessened acceptability of non-conforming uses 
in multiple use. 

Other than as necessary background, I shall not dwell on the human population, 
its physical needs, and the demands upon our resources to fulfill these needs. I 
have found the volume Land for the Future by Clawson, Held and Stoddard 
(I960) to be particularly useful, and I shall rely on it for facts and projections. 
The perspective given in this book seems to me more balanced than most, prob- 
ably because the authors are not concerned with a single resource; and their 
treatment, though more optimistic than some others, does not depend upon a 
blind faith in the ability of technology to supply all of our needs. 

THE HUMAN POPULATION 

The estimated United States population for 1980 and 2000, and the actual 
1956 population are shown in Table 1. The distribution of people between urban 
and rural areas, their expected work week, and their estimated total expenditure 
for recreation are also indicated in this table. The proportion of expenditures on 
outdoor recreation is not known even for the present, but Clawson et al. (I960: 
135) state "... expenditures on outdoor recreation in 1980 may be in the rough 
order of three times those of 1956, and by the year 2000 they may reach six 
times the expenditures for 1956." The proportion of these expenditures dependent 
upon wildlife and fishing is probably substantial, and it is not likely to decrease 
markedly. 

The breakdown of visits to intermediate and resource-based recreation areas 
is given because these two types of areas support fishing and hunting, and pre- 

1 Wildlife is used here to include primarily birds and mammals. 
76 



sumably bird watching and other non-consumptive uses of wildlife. Resource- 
based areas are those with superior natural features, and they may be distant from 
users; National parks and forests and some State parks and private areas are 
included. Intermediate areas are reasonably close to the users, and contain the 
best resources available within distance limitations ; State parks and private areas 
are the principal examples (Clawson et al., I960). 

In short then, we are concerned about the demand in 1980 of 240 million 
people with nearly one-fourth more leisure and nearly $40 billion to spend on 
recreation; by the year 2000 there may be 310 million people with one-third more 
leisure, and $88.5 billion available for recreation. 

PATTERNS OF LAND USE IN THE UNITED STATES- 
PRESENT AND FUTURE 

The increased human population will certainly exert different pressures and 
demands upon the land to fulfill its physical and spiritual needs. The uses of 
land in the United States for 1900, 1950, and projections for their use in 1980 
and 2000 are listed in Table 2. 

The projections are largely based on the premise that the demand for virtually 
every product and service the land can provide is sharply upward. With a fixed 
total area it is obvious that much of the demand will require more intensive land 
use, and that some of the demand cannot be satisfied. 

Perhaps the most notable feature of these figures is that there is relatively little 
change in use up to the year 2000 as compared to the changes at the end of the 
last century and the beginning of this one. Phrased another way, the kinds and 
quantities of land use are becoming more stable and are likely to continue so; 
conversely, intensity of use within the major types of land use is likely to change 
markedly. 

Table 1. Factors Related to Outdoor Recreation Demands 
(From Clawson et al., I960) 



Population 

Total 

Urban 

Rural 

Work Week— Hours 

Expenditures on Recreation.. 
Recreation visits 

Intermediate 1 

Resource-based 1 



1956 



170,000,000 

96,500,000 

73,500,000 

40 

$14,000,000,000 

312,000,000 
116,000,000 



1980 



240,000,000 

185,000,000 

55,000,000 

32 

$39,900,000,000 

1,200,000,000 
750,000,000 



2000 



310,000,000 

255,000,000 

55,000,000 

28 

$88,500,000,000 

5,000,000,000 
5,000,000,000 



1 Intermediate areas are not too remote from users, and are on the best resources available within dis- 
tance limitations ; resource-based areas are those with superior natural features and they may be distant 
from users. 



77 



Table 2. Use of Land in the United States in 1900, 1950, and 
Projections for 1980 and 2000 ' 

(From Clawson et al., I960: 442) 



USE OF LAND (MILLION ACRES) FOR 



1900 



1950 



1980 



2000 



Cities of 2,500 or more population 2 

Public recreation areas 3 

Agriculture: 

Crops 4 

Pasture 5 

Other 6 

Subtotal 

Commercial forestry: 

Continuous management 7 

Little or no management 

Subtotal 

Grazing 8 

Transportation 

Reservoirs and water management 9 

Primarily for wildlife 

Mineral production 

Deserts, swamps, mountain tops, some 

non-commercial forest, etc 

Miscellaneous and unaccounted for 

Total „ 



6 

5 

319 
77 
53 

449 


525 
525 

808 

17 



94 



1,904 



17 
46 



409 
69 

45 
523 

359 
125 

484 

700 
25 
10 
14 



85 



1,904 



30 

72 

388 
70 
45 

503 

385 
90 

475 

700 
28 
15 
18 



63 



1,904 



41 
95 

388 
70 
45 

503 

405 

50 

455 

680 
30 
20 
20 



60 



1,904 



* Negligible. 

1 The data in this table are necessarily estimates in several instances, sometimes on a relatively scanty 
basis of fact. This table emphasizes land use, as separate from land ownership or control or from 
vegetative cover. 

2 Includes municipal parks. 

3 Excludes municipal parks, includes national park system, areas within national forests reserved for 
recreation, state parks and acreages around TVA and Corps reservoirs reserved for recreation. Excludes 
all areas used primarily for other purposes even though they provide much recreation. Excludes actual 
water area of reservoirs, which is shown later under its own heading. Excludes also wildlife areas, which 
are shown below. We have assumed that only part of the increased potential demand will be met. Data 
for past taken from Statistics on Outdoor Recreation (Washington: Resources for the Future, Inc., 1958). 

4 Cropland harvested, crop failure, cultivated summer fallow, and cropland idle or in cover crops. 
See Tables 11 and 12, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 168. U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1957! 

5 Only pasture on land which is considered cropland is included. This corresponds to the 1949 
and 1954 Census of Agriculture definition. The 1900 figure is an estimate. 

6 Farmsteads, farm roads, feed lots, lanes, ditches, and wasteland. See Tables 11 and 12 Agriculture 
Information Bulletin No. 168. 

7 This is a roughly estimated figure. For 1950, it excludes commercial forest land with no fire protection 
or poorly stocked, as shown in Timber Resources for America's Future, U. S. Forest Service, 1958. For 
earlier years, it is our estimate of comparable definition area. 

8 Includes some noncommercial forest land used primarily for grazing. 

9 Excluding land around reservoirs and conservation pools of reservoirs, which are included in 
recreation areas. 



WILD ANIMAL POPULATIONS AND LAND USE 

The use of land is, in the final analysis, the basic factor determining animal 
populations, for animal populations are products or byproducts of the land. The 
huge herds of bison that once roamed our prairies and the flights of passenger 

78 



pigeons that darkened our skies both are gone from the face of the earth, the 
victims of changed use of the land whose final disappearance may have been 
speeded but not caused by wasteful slaughter. The passenger pigeon is extinct, 
and the bison lives on in the United States only under fence. But changes in land 
use are not necessarily detrimental to all animal populations ; some changes have 
provided additional habitat for certain species, and some of these, such as deer, 
have responded with current populations which far exceed the primitive popula- 
tions (Taylor, 1956). Others, such as the chimney swift, have been able to take 
advantage of man's structures; still others, such as the red-winged blackbird, 
have adapted by substituting man's dependable agricultural crops for more variable 
wild foods. Populations of many species are less strikingly affected, but most wild 
animals are fairly specific in their requirements and their populations undoubtedly 
have responded, for better or worse. To generalize, the more diverse the environ- 
ment, the more diverse the animal population that it will support; and unfor- 
tunately, the converse is equally true. 

In the preceding section of this paper, it was noted that the trend in the future 
would be toward more intensive land use; toward making each acre used yield 
more of whatever product it is producing. Intensive use almost always brings 
about more homogeneous use, and consequently less diversity in small units of 
the environment. And intensive use also means that there is less opportunity for 
multiple use, less acceptance of competition with lower forms of life, in fact, 
less acceptance of losses from any cause. This trend is already clearly evident in 
agriculture, with the increased use of insecticides, fungicides, and "othercides" ; 
the increased concern over bird and other animal depredations (which may also 
have increased in intensity as well as being less acceptable) ; and the trend toward 
larger fields for more efficient management. The trend is evident also, though 
perhaps less far advanced, on forest lands. Areas devoted to watersheds in arid 
and semi-arid regions are being managed for maximum water yields ; control of 
wild fire is becoming better every year; increased efficiency in timber yield is 
being accomplished through single species stands controlled with chemical herbi- 
cides ; increased control of insects and diseases through chemical insecticides and 
fungicides; and extensive investigations of means of alleviating animal damage 
through animal population reduction, systemic repellents, and other repellents. 
Even areas in the National forests devoted to recreation are being more intensively 
managed for recreation (U. S. Forest Service, 1961) ; our concern here must be 
that we do not dilute the very values we are striving to enhance. 

Many land-use practices aimed at increasing the yield of the primary resource 
so alter environments as to make them less attractive and productive of wildlife. 
A few of them, particularly pesticidal applications, may cause outright mortality, 
which is most often inadvertent, but nonetheless real. 

Perhaps one of the most striking examples of the impact of changing and 
intensifying timber management practices on a y wild species is the case of the 
red-cockaded woodpecker. This bird, an inhabitant of the pinelands of the South, 
always nests in living trees infected with redheart, Fomes pini, (Steirly, 1957). 

79 



Saw-log forestry required old growth, but current forest practice results in cutting 
before trees become overmature and diseased. The result is that this woodpecker 
is almost bound to be exterminated unless some pine stands are deliberately 
managed to produce overmature trees with some disease, rather than all pulpwood. 

With regard to multiple use of lands whose primary purpose is not for wildlife, 
Clawson et al. (I960: 449) consider that compatibility is high on lands used 
primarily for grazing and for forestry, fairly high on recreation lands, poor to 
high on reservoirs and water management areas, poor to moderate on agricultural 
lands, poor to fair on mineral lands, very poor on urban lands, and completely 
incompatible on lands used for transport. 

Thus, the outlook for the future is generally for lower populations and fewer 
species of wildlife than exist today. The impact in regard to fish is less bleak, 
for multiple use of waters, including fishing, seems reasonably acceptable. 

FUTURE DESIRE FOR FISHING AND WILDLIFE 

It seems necessary to treat fishing and wildlife separately, for a variety of reasons. 
First, fishing is essentially the only recreational use to which fish can be put, 
whereas wildlife offers opportunities for photography and observing, as well as 
for hunting. Secondly, fishing is much more of a family recreation than is hunting, 
though not necessarily more so than other recreational uses of wildlife. Third, 
fishing is apparently more amenable to concentrated mass use than is wildlife, 
both because fishing gear can be used safely in closer proximity to other people 
than can guns, and because concentrations of people are less likely to disturb fish 
than they are birds and mammals. On the other side, one can well question whether 
the therapeutic values of recreational fishing can ever be realized under over- 
crowded conditions. 

Fishing 

Fishing as a recreational pursuit has increased enormously in the last few 
decades. In the year ending June 30, 1959, the most recent year for which figures 
are available, nearly twenty million people bought fishing licenses. Even this 
figure, which is one out of nine individuals in the total population residing in 
the United States, is low because many States require no license for fishing in 
marine waters. What of the future? In a recent report prepared by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service (U. S. Senate, I960), the conclusion is reached that "Fishing 
opportunities are expected to increase in number in future years with the con- 
struction and improved management of artificial impoundments, reduction of 
stream pollution, increased interest in marine sport fishing, and utilization of 
presently under-utilized species. . . . Assuming that fishing license sales will in- 
crease at a rate somewhat more rapid than population to 1980 and in direct 
ratio thereafter, it is estimated that there will be 47 million fishermen in 1980 
and 63 million fishermen in 2000. . . ." 

There is some reason to consider the foregoing estimates of future numbers of 
fishermen high, in view of an apparent leveling off of the proportion of the 

80 



population that bought fishing licenses in the last few years (Figure 1), but such 
trends were discernible also in the 1920's and again in the late 1930's and early 
1940's. Undoubtedly, data from a National Survey of Hunters and Fishermen now 
being assembled will give a better basis for judgment. My own personal inclina- 
tion would be to assume that there will be an increase in numbers of fishermen, 
but that the very increase in numbers will tend to damp the rate of increase, It 
seems improbable to me that people will voluntarily subject themselves to the 
crowding that would be necessary to accommodate the numbers of fishermen 
estimated on the amount of water presumed to be available. Surely if they do, 
much of the value of fishing to the individual will be lost. 



12 - 
II - 
10 

9 
8 



H 7 

z 

UJ 

o 6 

UJ 

"5 



4 -. 




Licensed Fishermen 
Licensed Hunters 



■ — Waterfowl Hunters 



s ^ 



\ 



1935 


1940 


1945 


1950 


1955 


I960 


1936 


1941 


1946 


19 51 


1956 


1961 



Fig. 1. — Percentage of license holders in the total population residing in the United States 
(license figures from information compiled in the Branch of Federal Aid, Bureau of Sport 
Fisheries and Wildlife; population figures from U.S. Census Current Population Reports, 
Series P-25). 



81 



Wildlife 

Wildlife has played an important, varied role in the history of the United States. 
In Colonial times it was a source of food and clothing, a necessity that permitted 
existence and encouraged exploration. Later, during the era of the fur trade it 
was the prime cash crop. Now, however, its principal use to man is in providing 
recreation, offering esthetic stimulation, contributing to the health and naturalness 
of environments, and enhancing our social well-being through its recreational 
and esthetic values. (And as an administrator of wildlife research, I would be 
negligent if I did not acknowledge its scientific value as a vehicle for investigating 
fundamental natural phenomena.) While recognizing the existence of biological, 
social, and scientific values, as outlined by King (1947), I should like to devote 
the remainder of my paper to the recreational and esthetic values of wildlife, and 
what seem to me the changing ways in which these values are being realized. 

We can divide the recreational use of wildlife into two types — consumptive 
and non-consumptive. Present programs of management seem largely aimed at 
satisfying the consumptive use, probably on the assumption that supplies of 
wildlife and conditions adequate for hunting will automatically provide sufficient 
wildlife and satisfactory conditions for non-consumptive users. Public policy, 
at least at the Federal level, recognizes both consumptive and non- consumptive 
uses of wildlife, for the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956, as amended, begins 
with the statement that "The Congress hereby declares that the fish, shellfish, 
and wildlife resources of the Nation make a material contribution to our national 
economy and food supply, as well as a material contribution to the health, 
recreation, and well-being of our citizens; . . ." There is no distinction here 
between consumptive and non-consumptive recreational use. Hunting is indeed 
an important part of our recreational use of wildlife, and I, myself, am a con- 
firmed hunter. Thus, the following paragraphs are not intended to deprecate 
the value of hunting ; rather they are based on the premise that the importance 
of hunting is self evident. The virtues of hunting have been extolled by Clarke 
(1958), and the social impact of hunting has been debated by Anthony (1957) 
and Krutch (1957). It seems desirable to examine here who hunts and why. 

The percentage of the population residing in the United States who bought 
hunting licenses and the percentage who bought Migratory Bird Hunting Stamps 
from 1934-35 to 1959-60, the most recent year for which data are available, are 
given in Figure 1. Both curves indicate a leveling off or even a decrease in the 
proportion of the population that hunts. The high point for all hunters was in 
1953-54, when slightly over 10 per cent of the total population bought licenses. 
For duck hunters, the high was the preceding year, with 1.44 per cent of the 
population buying "duck stamps." We should not draw too hard and fast con- 
clusions from these data, for they contain many variables ; furthermore, at least 
in certain States, a similar trend was evident in the late 1920's. Another set of 
data bearing on this same point is shown in Figure 2 (U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, I960). It relates to visits to national wildlife refuges, where the number 
of visits for hunting increased only from 222,470 on 41 areas open to hunting 

82 



"Miscellaneous 1 




I960 



1951 1955 

Fig. 2.— Visits to National Wildlife Refuges (from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildlife 
Leaflet 420, May, I960). 



in 1951 to 481,504 on 76 areas open in 1959- It must be borne in mind, however, 
that the principal purpose of the national wildlife refuge is for use by wildlife, 
not people, and the areas open for hunting are rather small and vary from year 
to year, depending on the supply of game. During this same period of time, 
interest in bow hunting, a form of hunting obviously placing a higher premium 
on participation than on a trophy, has increased markedly. Figures from Michigan 

83 



show a thirty-fold increase in the proportion of the population buying bow hunting 
licenses from 1942 to 1957. 

During this same period of time there are indications of increasing interest 
in non-consumptive uses of wildlife. Figure 2, for example, shows that "mis- 
cellaneous" visits to refuges exceed those for hunting by many fold, and, 
furthermore, that this difference is greater now than it was in the first years of 
record-keeping. In fact, in 1958 there were more than fifteen times as many 
"miscellaneous" visitors as there were hunters. While it is quite true that these 
people were not all attracted by the wildlife on the areas, it seems reasonable 
that substantial numbers of them were. Other supporting information shows that 
memberships in national organizations concerned with the out-of-doors, such 
as the Wilderness Society, National Audubon Society, Nature Conservancy, and 
the Sierra Club have increased three- to ten-fold in the last decade. 

Other sets of figures that may perhaps be indicative of the degree of interest 
in the non-consumptive uses of wildlife are found in isolated places: In Utah, 
20,000 people visited the Hardware Ranch, operated as an elk management area, 
to see and enjoy the elk during 1959 (Berryman, I960). 

There are at least fourteen local bird clubs with 1,735 members known to 
visit the wetlands of Hempstead and Oyster Bay, Long Island, and at least 
another 1,000 to 1,200 active birdwatchers not affiliated with any club. This 
compares with 5,000 duck hunters known to use the same area (U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife, unpubl.). 

The burden of my thesis is, then, that there is an increasing amount of rec- 
reational use of wildlife, but that the trend in use is toward more observing, 
with a consequent decline in the proportion of participation in hunting. And 
it appears to me that this trend is likely to continue. A corollary to this trend, 
and a most serious one in many States, is that revenues from sportsmen's license 
fees are declining while costs are rising; and in most States, license moneys 
are practically the sole source of funds for fish and wildlife management. A recent 
editorial in Michigan Conservation, discussing this problem, concludes: 

"The final answer, obviously, must be a new source of revenue. It seems inevit- 
able that others who use and enjoy Michigan's resources will have to share with 
the hunter and fisherman the cost of conservation. The inescapable fact of this 
critical moment is that conservation in Michigan is in a kind of bread line, 
waiting for a handout to get through the day and hoping for a better tomorrow." 
(Anon., 1961). 

Granting the existence of this trend toward more non-consumptive use, we 
may well ask why? To answer this properly requires some insight into why people 
hunt, and here we leave the realm of fact and shift to speculation. Peterle (1961) 
has attempted to shed some light on the question, but all we can ever find from 
the questionnaire approach is what the hunter chooses to tell us — and I suspect 
that even if he is scrupulously honest, he doesn't know why he hunts. Still and 
all, Peterle's respondents provide the best basis we have at present for judging: 
"Nearly half the hunters agreed they could be satisfied with a hunt if they didn't 

84 



kill any game; even a higher proportion (79 per cent) said that part of the pleasure 
of hunting results from seeing sunsets, bird nests, trees, flowers, and other wonders 
of nature. More than 70 per cent thought that we should set aside more wilder- 
ness areas." I submit that shifting away from hunting is a matter of quality. 
Quality in the sense of attractive, uncluttered wild places ; in the sense of depend- 
ence on one's self; in the sense of freedom and solitude. 

That eloquent philosopher of wildlife conservation, Aldo Leopold, long ago 
outlined what he considered the components of appreciation of wildlife (Leopold, 
1948). He considered first the individual who must return with a trophy as a 
certificate of his ability, and these trophy seekers he divided into two kinds — 
those who reduce some wild thing to possession, and those who photograph or 
record. The first of these alters the environment, and thus, engaged in en masse, 
ultimately destroys the very things it values most highly; the second removes 
nothing tangible, and hence generally speaking, is much more subject to mass 
use without destruction. The second stage he describes is the feeling of isolation 
in nature, which also tends to be self -destroying. Third, he distinguishes "the 
fresh-air and change-of- scene component," which again tends not to be diluted 
by mass use. The last two components he lists are perception, or ecological com- 
prehension; and finally, the sense of husbandry. He also pointed out clearly 
that "recreation is valuable in proportion to the intensity of its experience, and 
to the degree to which it differs from and contrasts with workaday life." The 
question then seems, what are we doing about it? 

There are increasing evidences of public and professional awareness of this 
problem of quality in hunting. Even the New York Times has raised its eyebrows 
over the trend toward gadgeteering and the consequent decline in quality of 
outdoor recreation (N. Y. Times, Aug. 21, I960. "What Would Daniel Boone 
Say?"). A recent meeting of the California Section of the Wildlife Society had 
as its theme "Quality vs. Quantity." In recent years, the "firing lines" that existed 
to slaughter migrating elk around Yellowstone Park, and on some of the goose 
management areas in the Mississippi valley aroused much public clamor and 
disapprobation. Today, serious consideration is being given as to how these 
surplus populations can be used to provide quality recreation. The U. S. National 
Park Service is wrestling with the problem of excessive big game populations 
on Parks and Monuments; undoubtedly animals must be removed to prevent 
range destruction. But can we remove them by hunting, and if we can, will it 
be recreation? Director Wirth has suggested the possibility of public assistance 
in removing these surpluses (Wirth, 1961). 

In the Mississippi Flyway, several public shooting areas now control access 
by restricting travel to foot or manually propelled boats. These restrictions on 
travel operate through a stratifying process that puts the hunter most willing to 
work for it in the least crowded conditions. A report currently in preparation by 
the Planning Committee of the Mississippi Flyway Council outlines many addi- 
tional steps that can be taken to enhance quality in waterfowl hunting. I have no 
doubt that other groups will do likewise for other areas and other kinds of 

85 



hunting as public dissatisfaction mounts, or as we in the wildlife profession 
awaken more to our responsibilities for providing quality as well as quantity. 

Can We Meet the Demands? 

It seems to me, as I have tried to point out above, that the demands are 
changing. Further, it seems to me that we in the wildlife profession should 
help these demands to change — that we should leave behind our preoccupation 
with more and more targets and shift some of our efforts to enhancing quality. 
Targets as such can best be supplied by private shooting preserves which con- 
centrate on quantity, and will doubtless attract those who are willing to accept 
an artificial product. Kozicky (1961) has shown a doubling in number of shoot- 
ing preserves to 1,700 now, and a quadrupling of targets to 1,500,000 during the 
past six years. Those of us concerned with public recreation will do well to 
concentrate on quality, and on maximum diversity in natural surroundings. We 
must concentrate on providing opportunities to enjoy wildlife and fish, on the 
occasional trophy, and the unusual observation, and not on meat in the pot. 
And we will certainly do well to promote perception and understanding. To the 
degree we offer esthetically pleasing contrast to day-to-day experience, so will 
we meet the future needs of our people. 

CONCLUSION 

The human population of the United States is increasing rapidly, and by the 
year 2000 may exceed 300 million people. The requirements of these people for 
food and fiber, living space, and water can be met, but the shifts in land use 
necessary to meet them will increase the problem of providing wildlife and 
fishing in sufficient quantity and quality. It seems probable that the demand 
for fishing may be met by the increased amount and lessened pollution of water 
available, the utilization of species not now fully utilized, and by shifting of 
more fishing pressure to marine waters. Demand for wildlife can be met, it seems 
to me, only by concentrating on offering quality rather than quantity — the oppor- 
tunity to hunt rather than the guarantee of a carcass to be brought home; and 
by the shifting of a substantial portion of our use from consumptive to non- 
consumptive uses. Creating in the public a greater appreciation and ability to per- 
ceive is one of the most hopeful means of accomplishing this change to greater 
non-consumptive use. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anon. 1961. "Conservation is in a breadline — an editorial." Mich. Conserva- 
tionist, 30(1): 2-3. 

Anthony, Harold E. 1957. "The sportsman or the predator?" II. But it's 
instinctive. Saturday Review, Aug. 17, p. 9. 

Berryman, Jack H. I960. "Who pays the piper?" Utah Fish and Game, Nov., 
p. 14-15. 

Clarke, C. H. D. 1958. "Autumn thoughts of the hunter." /. Wildl. Mgmt., 
22(4): 420-427. 

86 






Clawson, Marion, R. Burnell Held and Charles W. Stoddard. I960. Land for 

the future. Publ. for Resources for the Future by Johns Hopkins University 

Press, Baltimore. 570 pp. 
King, Ralph T. 1947. "The future of wildlife in forest land use." Trans. N. 

Am. Wildl. Conf., 12: 454-467. 
Kozicky, E. L. 1961. "Shooting preserves — their history and economics." Talk 

to wildlife extension specialists, Mar. 7. 
Krutch, Joseph Wood. 1957. "The sportsman or the predator?" I. A damnable 

pleasure. Saturday Review, Aug. 17, p. 8. 
Leopold, Aldo. 1948. A Sand County almanac, and sketches here and there. 

Oxford University Press, N. Y. 226 pp. 
Peterle, Tony J. 1961. "The hunter: who is he." Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf., 

26. In press. 
Steirly, C. C. 1957. "Nesting ecology of the red-cockaded woodpecker in 

Virginia." Atlantic Nat., 12(6): 280-292. 
Taylor, Walter P., ed. 1956. The deer of North America. Stackpole Co., 

Harrisburg. 668 pp. 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. I960. Public use of national wildlife refuges — 

1951-1959. Wildl. Leaflet 420. May. 1 p. 
U. S. Forest Service. 1961. National forest wildlife, operation outdoors. Part 2. 

U. S. Gov't. Printing Office. 16 pp. 
U. S. Senate. Select Committee on National Water Resources. I960. Water 

resources activities in the United States /Fish and wildlife water resources. 

86th Congress, 2nd Session, Committee Print No. 18. U. S. Gov't. Printing 

Office. 69 pp. 
Wirth, Conrad L. 1961. "Recreation requires a new dimension." Trans. N. 

Am. Wildl. Conf., 26. In press. 



87 



PART FOUR 

CHALLENGES IN 
FOREST PRODUCTION 



Physiological Implications 

Theodore T. Kozlowski 

Professor of Forestry 
University of Wisconsin 



There is widespread agreement on the need for handling forests to produce 
selected species of trees with improved form, good quality, and fast growth, as 
well as resistance to insects and disease. These objectives are indeed challenging 
for forests are exceedingly complex and dynamic ecosystems. Many of them are 
composed of a variety of species of trees of different ages, different morphological 
characteristics, different rooting habits, and varying capacities to endure environ- 
mental stresses. Throughout their development the members of such complex 
plant communities undergo severe competition. As a result, growth of individual 
trees is inhibited. A real difficulty in producing specified forest products on a 
given area is that seriously disturbed forests tend to return to the original type. 
For example, in a twenty-year period hardwoods replaced pine as a forest type 
on thirteen million acres of land in the south (66). Nevertheless the increasing 
demands for specified forest products will necessitate favoring transitory species 
and maintaining many forests in what is really an artificial state. These considera- 
tions call for increased knowledge of the fundamental nature of tree growth, its 
biochemical machinery, and variations in physiological response of different species 
to environmental stress. 

This paper will emphasize physiological implications in tree growth and point 
up some of the critical areas in which physiologists can make contributions to 
meet the challenges in forest production. 

INTERNAL CONTROL OF GROWTH 

To a physiologist the predominating feature of a tree is its ability to make 
itself. Throughout its life span a tree is supplied by its own leaves and roots 
with such essentials for growth as carbohydrates, hormones, minerals and water 
over increasingly longer translocation paths. This necessitates a delicate balance 
between organs and precise correlations in rates of physiological processes, includ- 
ing photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen and fat metabolism, enzymatic activity, 
translocation and assimilation. The amount of growth which occurs over a given 
time depends to a considerable extent on important regulatory mechanisms of 
food conversion in addition to food synthesis. 

As emphasized by Kramer (119) the contribution of physiologists in improv- 
ing forest production lies in their responsibility for identifying and characterizing 
the fundamental processes in trees which influence growth and for demonstrating 
how these processes are affected by heredity and environment. Kramer pointed 
out that physiological processes must always be recognized as the critical inter- 
mediaries through which heredity and environment interact to influence growth. 

91 



Silvicultural treatments which alter growth do so only through their influence on 
carbohydrate production, assimilation, hormonal relations, water relations and 
other internal conditions. Furthermore, decreased growth or, ultimately, death, 
as a result of insect attack or fungus disease inevitably is preceded by critical 
disruption of physiological activity. In fact, all changes in tree growth occasioned 
by environmental changes, cultural changes, or changes in genotype are linked 
always to internal physicochemical processes and conditions. 

The importance of internal controls is emphasized by time-lag responses of 
trees to environmental fluctuations. For example, the absorption of water lags 
behind transpiration and tree leaves and stems tend to dry out during the middle 
of the day (115). Hence, environmental conditions which are conducive to high 
transpiration eventually, but not immediately, cause leaf desiccation and in turn 
reduction in photosynthesis. The rate of flow of maple sap on a particular day 
is more closely related to temperature conditions of the previous day than to the 
day of flow measurement (145). Vegetative growth and reproduction are affected 
by environmental changes but only after a time lag during which internal changes 
occur. Using regression analysis Fritts (52) found that light intensity of the 
day of measurement exerted a direct effect on diameter growth of hardwoods for 
two days thereafter. He attributed this to a lag in translocation of photosynthate 
to the measured region of the stem. 

The actual lag in certain growth responses to environmental changes may cover 
a considerable period of time. Holmsgaard and Olsen (77) demonstrated that 
seed production in beech was correlated with weather conditions of June and 
July of the previous year. Motley (155) found that low amounts of rainfall 
during May to November in 1940 and 1944 were followed by decreases in height 
growth in 1941 and 1945. When rainfall increased during the growing season 
of a particular year height growth was increased the following year. 

It is well known that terminal shoot formation of many Temperate Zone trees 
is a two-stage process requiring two years. During the first year the bud con- 
taining primordia of the following year's growth is formed. Hence, Sacher (179) 
found that winter buds of pine trees contained unextended internodes with all 
the primordia of growth for the following season included. During the second 
year the parts already contained in the bud extended into a shoot. 

A favorable environment during the year of bud formation is translated into 
a large amount of shoot growth the following year, unless unusually severe 
environmental stresses occur during the period of shoot elongation (125). How- 
ever, height growth of most Temperate Zone species occurs during only a short 
part of the frost-free season and thereby escapes severe late-season environmental 
stresses such as droughts. Kienholz (90) found that in New England maples, 
red oak, white ash, beech and white, red, Scotch and jack pines required only 
thirty days to complete 90 per cent of their height growth. Gray and white birch 
and aspen had longer growing seasons ; yet they completed 90 per cent of their 
height growth within approximately sixty days. Other studies emphasize that 
height growth of many species occupies only the relatively early part of the 

92 



Table 1. Variations in length of growing season. Height growth data for 
nursery-grown seedlings during the growing season of 1954 in Central Massa- 
chusetts. From Kozlowski and Ward (110, 111). 



SPECIES 


DATE GROWTH STARTED 


DAYS TO COMPLETE 
90% OF GROWTH 




Gymnosperms 
April 15 
April 20 
April 15 
April 15 


57 




99 




82 




93 








Angiosperms 
April 19 
April 19 
May 1 
April 19 
April 24 
April 24 
April 19 


36 




39 




75 




98 




84 




95 




91 







frost-free season (31, 116, 96, 110, 111, 112, 125) (Table 1). Since terminal 
shoot elongation of many species starts early in the season and much or all of 
it is completed by the time the leaves have produced only a fraction of their 
total seasonal photosynthetic output, height growth of many species probably 
depends to a considerable extent on stored carbohydrates rather than on currently 
produced photosynthate. McGregor (149) observed that in North Carolina sig- 
nificant amounts of carbohydrates were not produced by white and loblolly pines 
until June but by that time much of the year's height growth was already com- 
pleted (Table 2). Clark (30) found that the new foliage of balsam fir released 
more carbon dioxide in respiration than it utilized in photosynthesis early in 
the growing season, thus reemphasizing the importance of translocated foods for 
shoot elongation (Figure 1). In England Rutter (177) showed that about half 
the height growth of Scots pine seedlings was completed by May 26 but total 
dry weight of the whole plants decreased up to that time. During the time of 
shoot elongation the old needles decreased in dry weight approximately as much 
as the new shoots increased in dry weight. These facts reemphasized that the 
new shoots grew at the expense of carbohydrates stored in the old needles. Such 
observations also stress that growth is internally controlled and depends on food 
reserves and other growth factors and conditions which often are related to an 
environmental regime of the past. It is not until critical biochemical adjustments 
are realized that growth responses occur. 

93 



Table 2. Seasonal changes in the rates of photosynthesis and respiration of 
loblolly pine and white pine. The loblolly pine seedlings were in their second 
season and the white pine seedlings in their fourth season. From McGregor ( 149) . 

Monthly excess of photosynthesis over respiration in gms. CO2 per plant. 



LOBLOLLY PINE 


WHITE PINE 


—0.596 


—0.356 


—0.564 


—0.514 


0.525 


0.366 


1.679 


1.757 


8.837 


8.011 


14.282 


12.170 


24.920 


15.419 


32.249 


17.179 


34.604 


20.224 


31.527 


11.614 


19.755 


5.147 


7.443 


0.976 



January .... 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September 
October .... 
November 
December 



Internal growth control also can be demonstrated by variations in the rate 
and duration of shoot elongation on different parts of the same tree. As may be 
seen in Table 3 annual shoot growth tended to decrease progressively downward 
and inward in the four highest whorls of branches in red and white pine trees. 
Annual growth of four stem axes was in the following order: primary > sec- 
ondary > tertiary > quaternary. Also, within an axis growth decreased in each 
whorl from the top downward. The physiological mechanism of such correlative 
growth inhibition within a tree is not fully understood, but auxin and food 
relations appear to be variously involved (185, 198, 219, 220, 23, 25, 62). 

Table 3. Variations in shoot elongation during i960 on different locations of 
stems of six-year-old conifers grown at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. All meas- 
urements are in centimeters. From Kozlowski and Ward (112). 





PRIMARY 
AXIS 


SECONDARY AXIS 


TERTIARY AXIS 


QUATER- 
NARY 
AXIS 




(Ter- 
minal 
Leader) 


Whorl Number 


Whorl Number 


Whorl 
Number 




1 
(Ter- 
minal) 


2 


3 


4 


2 


3 


4 


3 


4 






Up- 
per 
Set 


Low- 
er Set 


Up- 
per 
Set 


Low- 
er Set 




Red 
Pine 


57.7 
±6.2 


34.6 

±7.7 


32.5 
±4.9 


27.7 
±5.4 


15.4 
±8.0 


17.1 
±5.8 


15.3 
±5.4 


13.7 
±4.5 


11.5 

±4.9 


8.1 

±4.8 


6.2 

±2.7 


4.7 
±2.5 


White 
Pine 


44.3 
±7.6 


25.5 

±8.2 


24.8 
±7.0 


19.1 
±4.1 


14.1 
±2.2 


12.3 
±5.1 


10.5 

±3.4 


9.5 

±3.4 


7.8 
±8.4 


7.3 
±3.7 


4.3 
±0.6 


3.0 
±0.5 



94 



1.0 
.9 
,8 
J 
.6 



4> 



.3 



* 



? .2- 



e 
i .1 

s 
= 



o 




^0-Year 

^^ 1-Year 



^^2-Year 



* 4-Year 
S«* 3-Year 

a 4,5-Year 
• ^6-Year 



May June July Aug. Sept Oct 

Fig. 1. — Seasonal photosynthesis of balsam fire needles of varying age. From Clark (30) . 



95 



IMPORTANT PROBLEM AREAS IN PHYSIOLOGY 

Since growth of trees is essentially an outward manifestation of rates and 
coordination of physiological processes it is important to know how the efficiency 
of each of these processes varies in different species under optimal environments 
and under varying degrees of environmental stress. In the past many silvicultural 
investigations too often stopped with an evaluation of end results only. Much 
more progress would have been made if there had been more concern as to 
why these results came about (119). Hence, future investigations should be 
focused on physiological responses of trees to climatic, edaphic, and biotic factors. 
More basic information is needed on how trees grow. Some of the more important 
physiological implications and research needs in the areas of food, hormone, 
water and mineral relations as well as seed physiology will be considered briefly 
in the following discussion. 

Food Relations 

The raw materials and energy required for wood formation ultimately are 
derived from reduction of carbon dioxide. Therefore a thorough knowledge of 
variations in photosynthetic capacities of forest trees and of effects of factors 
controlling photosynthesis is basic to effective control of forest production. Man 
can manipulate photosynthesis to good advantage. To do so he needs to know 
that photosynthesis is influenced by a complex of environmental factors including 
light (70, 207, 124, 94, 97, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 204, 205, 214), temperature 
(85, 37, 49, 164, 128), carbon dioxide concentration of the air (38, 200, 80, 
125), soil moisture (180, 27, 4, 137, 94, 14, 157, 227), soil fertility (68, 26, 
171, 138), leaf coatings such as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides (83, 
125), and disease (139, 41, 125). In addition photosynthesis is influenced by 
several tree factors such as age of leaves (50, 160, 172), structure and arrange- 
ment of leaves (165, 166, 123), stomatal distribution and behavior (161, 44), 
chlorophyll content (206, 125), and carbohydrate accumulation (136, 125). 

Large differences in capacity for photosynthesis occur among species and even 
within species. These variations often are correlated with growth rates. For 
example, Huber and Polster (82) observed differences in photosynthesis of 
different clones of poplar species and hybrids. Photosynthesis was about ten 
times as great in a Wettstein hybrid as in Populus nigra and the difference in 
photosynthesis was correlated with the amount of wood produced. Bourdeau and 
Mergen (19) found that primary and secondary needles of diploid Pinus elliottii 
seedlings had higher rates of photosynthesis than had polyploid seedlings 
(Table 4). The lower photosynthesis in the polyploids was correlated with a 
depressed growth pattern. Higher photosynthetic capacity also has been demon- 
strated by Bjurman (11) for diploid Kibes satigrum plants than for tetraploids. 
Since the diploids had approximately 45 per cent more stomates per unit of leaf 
area and a slightly lower chlorophyll content than the tetraploids, Bjurman 
attributed the differences in photosynthesis to anatomical differences providing 
for more ready diffusion of carbon dioxide into leaf mesophyll in the diploids. 
96 



Table 4. Respiration and photosynthesis in diploid and polyploid shoots of 
Pinus elliottii Engelm. expressed on a fresh weight basis. From Bourdeau and 
Mergen. (19) 





RESPIRATION 

Micrograms C0 2 /min/g 


NET PHOTOSYNTHESIS 
AT 2000 F.C. 

Micrograms C0 2 /min/g 


Seedling 
1 
2 


Needle Type 

Primary 

Secondary 




2n 

40.2 

16.7 


Xn 
41.1 
12.7 


2n 
37.6 
25.5 


Xn 
7.3 
8.0 



Milner et al (152) found considerable difference in the rate of photosynthesis of 
different races of trees of the same species. These examples emphasize that short- 
time photosynthetic measurements undoubtedly will be exceedingly useful for 
identifying phenotypically normal individuals within species, hybrids, or ecotypes 
with exceptionally rapid photosynthesis and potential for unusually high cellulose 
production. Richardson (173) pointed up the usefulness of such an approach 
for selecting parent trees for vegetative propagation or controlled breeding. Such 
an approach to tree improvement will involve problems of measurement of 
photosynthesis (164, 39, 79, 80, 81, 93, 125), leaf measurements (109, 151, 
158), and interpretation of data (40). 

For many years horticulturists have been well aware of the need for continuing 
studies on photosynthesis of trees as related to environment. From their basic 
studies they have learned much about how to grow trees. Yet, many of their 
problems are less complex than those involving forest trees. Orchard trees, which 
are widely spaced, do not undergo the intense competition prevalent in a stratified 
forest consisting of closely-grown trees of different species. 

Many problems in forestry are traceable to practices which were physiologically 
unsound at the outset. Species have been planted in areas where they could not 
survive competition because of their inability to carry on photosynthesis effectively 
at low light intensities (124, 94, 125). In other areas forest trees are inefficient 
at high light intensities because their maximum photosynthesis is reached at a 
relatively low light intensity. Further increase of light intensity above a critical 
intensity results in rapid carbohydrate depletion because of increased respiration 
but no increase in photosynthesis (125). In Europe Tranquillini (205) reported 
that while sun plants of Pinus cembra fixed more carbon dioxide at higher light 
intensities than did shade plants, the concomitant increase in respiration decreased 
net photosynthesis. Tranquillini concluded that in one locality the total amount 
of sunlight available for photosynthesis was at least four times that needed for 
best growth of trees. Bourdeau and Laverick (18) explored the relationship 
between degree of tolerance and photosynthetic adaptability to light intensity 
in forest trees. They found that chlorophyll content might be limiting in white 
and red pine but not in hemlock. These experiments are cited as examples of 

97 



basic research and outlook which will be extremely revealing in getting at the 
fundamentals of growth control in forest trees. 

The tendency for use of chemicals such as herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides 
in forestry raises questions about the specific effects of these materials on photo- 
synthesis of forest trees. Many fungicidal and insecticidal sprays reduce photosyn- 
thesis in varying amounts, primarily by clogging stomates or by reducing the 
light available to mesophyll tissues. A considerable body of knowledge on the 
effects of leaf coatings on photosynthesis of orchard trees has accumulated (69, 
75, 76, 83, 92, 167, 168, 215, 216, 72). However, data for forest trees are very 
sparse. Wedding et al (215) observed that photosynthesis of citrus was depressed 
rapidly by petroleum oil sprays in amounts commonly used as insecticides and 
that inhibition of photosynthesis persisted for as long as two months. Heinicke 
(69) also noted that lime sulfur sprays reduced photosynthesis in apple trees 
by about half during the first five days after spraying. This represented a dry 
matter loss equivalent to that of a half bushel of apples. According to Helson (72) 
the botanical insecticide ryania reduced photosynthesis in trees with each of four 
applications at ten-day intervals until photosynthesis was reduced by 40 per cent. 
Hyre (83) reported that every one of twenty-two fungicides he dealt with reduced 
photosynthesis in trees. If several chemicals are equally effective as insecticides or 
fungicides, there obviously is real value in selecting the one that will interfere 
least with photosynthesis and with the ultimate production of wood. But we 
cannot speculate about these things. We need good data based on research. 

With more industrialization and greater concentrations of people there will 
be greatly increased possibility of growth inhibition of trees as a result of air 
pollution by discharges from factories, stoves, incinerators, and motor vehicles. 
There already is serious concern about smog damage. Experiments with ozonated 
hexene as a synthetic smog emphasized that smog reduced photosynthesis and 
growth ( 197, 201 ) . Sulfur dioxide injury also has been well documented. Reduced 
photosynthesis undoubtedly is involved. In British Columbia tree growth was 
depressed by sulfur dioxide injury as far as forty miles from the emission source 
(87) . Smoke and dust also depress photosynthesis. Many years ago Tourney (203) 
concluded that growth of conifers in Connecticut was reduced by 25 to 50 per cent 
by smoke. More recently Ersov (46) found in Russia that photosynthesis of 
Tilia cordata and Ulmus pinnato-racemosa was greatly decreased by a covering 
of smoke-grime. Dry weight increase of smoke-grimed leaves of Tilia was 43.3 
per cent and of elm 23.1 per cent less than that of clean leaves. Ersov attributed 
these decreases to altered light and temperature conditions, but stomatal plugging 
probably also played a role in depressing photosynthesis. It will be increasingly 
important to identify species which are resistant to various air contaminants. The 
marked variations in response to environmental stresses of different species em- 
phasize the need for building up a body of knowledge of factors controlling 
photosynthesis in different species and ecotypes. Information is especially needed 
on photosynthetic responses to light, water, air pollution, defoliation, and disease. 
The greater demands for wood and more intensive management of seed orchards 
98 



and plantations will tend to make many of the problems of horticulturists and 
foresters more alike. For these reasons there undoubtedly will be more environ- 
mental manipulation and more control over photosynthesis of forest trees, than 
in the past. 

It should not be inferred from the emphasis that has been placed on photo- 
synthesis that growth is controlled solely by the amount of available food. Tree 
growth often is checked rather suddenly even when trees have substantial carbo- 
hydrate reserves. Working with precisely controlled environmental conditions, 
Kramer (121) demonstrated that even under conditions of adequate light, mois- 
ture and minerals, loblolly pine seedlings grew in surges. Furthermore, when 
certain species of trees are subjected to long photoperiods they show greatly 
increased growth even when the additional light is of very low intensity. This 
suggests that food synthesis and food conversion are not necessarily coordinated. 
Other internal controls such as auxin deficiency appear to play important roles 
in growth inhibition when carbohydrate supplies are sufficient. There is unmis- 
takable need for thorough study of the relative efficiencies of different species 
in assimilating carbohydrates and of the biochemical changes occurring during 
food conversion. This was emphasized by Ryuzo and Davis (178) who found 
marked differences among varieties of trees in the ratio of photosynthesis to rate 
at which dry matter was accumulated. 

Hormone Relations 

Growth of trees is affected by internally produced growth substances in addi- 
tion to foods, minerals, and water. Among the best known of these growth- 
regulating substances are the auxins which cause elongation of shoot cells. They 
play a paramount regulatory role in several aspects of growth such as shoot 
elongation (125), diameter growth (188, 190, 8), root growth (7), wound 
healing (183), formation of galls and tumors (132, 91), fruit development 
(140, 142), and prevention of abscission of leaves (135, 184, 1), and fruits (141). 

The field of hormone physiology provides a good example of how basic 
physiological research and practical uses are related. For example, it was found 
that natural auxin from the tip of a cutting promoted rooting, and debudding 
of cuttings decreased root initiation. Rooting of cuttings also is enhanced by 
treatment with indolebutyric, naphthaleneacetic and indoleacetic acid and their 
potassium salts and esters (43, 199, 143). After treatment with such synthetic 
root-inducing substances carbohydrates are translocated to the base of the cutting, 
respiration increases and the number of root primordia increases (89). However, 
rooting of cuttings is influenced by a variety of factors including age of parent 
tree, season when cuttings are taken, and the part of the tree sampled (125). 
The inability to root cuttings from older trees has been a serious deterrent to 
forest tree improvement, and much more information is needed on the physiology 
of rooting. , 

Horticulturists have extended basic researches on hormones to produce partheno- 
carpic fruits with synthetic growth regulators (34, 162), to shorten the time 

99 



required for fruit ripening (144), and to increase fruit size (45). Control of 
preharvest drop of fruit in apple and pear orchards with hormone sprays has 
been developed as a standard practice which has decreased loss of fruits by pre- 
harvest drop by some 60 to 80 per cent (9). These practices have come about as 
a result of considerable basic research. 

Over the years such characteristics as fast growth and good form have been 
primary objectives in handling of forests. More recently much interest has been 
shown in improvement of wood quality. It is well known, for example, that pulp 
yields are correlated with wood density. Hence, trees with wood of high specific 
gravity reflect high quality for lumber and pulp. In many gymnosperms there 
is high correlation between specific gravity and proportion of springwood to 
summerwood in the annual ring. Therefore, the physiological mechanism which 
controls the initiation of summerwood formation is of the greatest interest not 
only to academicians but to the most practical man interested in more pulp per 
cord of wood. Mitchell (153) found that in the same species a cord of wood of 
high density produced twice as much pulp as the same volume of wood of low 
density. Zobel and McElwee (229) found specific gravity in loblolly pine to vary 
from 0.40 to 0.68. There is evidence that by selection and breeding it will be 
possible to develop wood of high specific gravity. 

Wareing (211) postulated that the springwood-summerwood transition was 
auxin controlled. Later Larson (130) demonstrated that under long photo- 
periods red pine seedlings produced springwood-like cells for an extended period, 
but when moved to short-day conditions summerwood-like cells were produced. 
Summerwood-like cells could also be induced by decapitation while application 
of exogenous auxin to decapitated seedlings induced limited production of 
springwood-like cells. Larson concluded that large-diameter cells were produced 
during the time of active elongation and high auxin production. Narrow- diameter 
summerwood cells were produced after terminal growth ceased and terminal 
auxin production declined. 

Another important research area involving hormones is that of flower induction. 
The continuing emphasis on forest tree improvement intensifies the dire need 
for understanding the internal processes which control flowering. Basic informa- 
tion on the flowering mechanism would be invaluable in devising methods for 
stimulating early flowering and seed production in tree breeding programs. 
Although precocious flowering has been reported in forest trees (150) it is 
uncommon and most forests trees grow only vegetatively during a juvenile period. 
The length of the juvenile period during which flowering does not occur varies 
greatly among species. Whereas Pinus sylvestrts does not flower for five to ten 
years Vagus sylvatica does not flower until thirty to forty years old (213). It is 
possible to accelerate seed production in older trees by crown release, fertilization, 
girdling, phloem inversion and root pruning (3, 217, 218, 63, 78, 10). Un- 
fortunately, this cannot be readily done in juvenile trees. There is considerable 
evidence that hormones play an important role in creating favorable conditions 
for flowering. Harada and Nitsch (64) demonstrated that profound quantitative 
100 



and qualitative hormonal changes occurred during flower development. Wareing 
(212) showed that young Scots pine trees produced female cones in five to seven 
years but male cones were not produced until ten to fifteen years. In young trees 
female cones were produced only on strong leading shoots, either leaders of 
lateral branches or the terminal leader. Male cones were first produced on shoots 
of lower morphological categories on basal branch regions. As a branch aged 
male cones were produced higher on the branches. Eventually male cones were 
produced close to female cones on leading branch shoots. These observations 
suggested a causal relation between shoot vigor and bud type. Reduction in shoot 
vigor associated with aging was linked with a changeover from formation of 
female to male cones. Such observations indicate different internal requirements 
for female and male cones and suggest that food and hormone relations are 
involved. That chemical composition influences flower formation has been known 
since the early studies of carbohydrate-nitrogen relations. Davis (36) believes, 
however, that a change in carbohydrate-nitrogen ratios is a result rather than 
cause of flowering. Chailakhjan (24) believes that many organic substances are 
involved in the process of flowering but that flowering hormones are of greatest 
significance. According to DeZeeuw and Bosweg (42) the role of auxin in 
flowering changes with the vegetative status of the plant. They found that in 
the presence of young growing tissue the influence of auxin appeared to be 
inhibitory. DeZeeuw and Bosweg suggested, therefore, that floral initiation may 
not require specific factors but rather mobilization or redistribution of normal 
growth factors away from young, growing tissue. They advocated a more intensive 
emphasis on translocation with tracer techniques as a useful approach to the 
flowering problem. Stanley (191) emphasized that the role of auxins and anti- 
auxins on metabolic patterns leading to production of floral primordia may be 
through their influence on the kinetics of plant enzyme systems. Stanley's impor- 
tant work showed that differentiation does not appear to be related to intercellular 
differences in nucleic acids or micronutrients. Roberts and Struckmeyer (174) 
reported that floral induction was associated with lipid physiology. They isolated 
a crude lipid extract which in minute quantities induced flowering. Kessler et al 
(89) suggested a possible relation of flowering to an increased RNA/DNA ratio. 
These several independent findings reflect the importance of identifying specific 
flower-inducing substances. Yet much greater emphasis on such work is needed 
for, as Nienstaedt (159) points out, there is a truly urgent need for studies on 
the basic mechanism controlling flowering in addition to the considerable research 
now underway on effects of environment on the amount of seed produced. 

An interesting case of the use of synthetic hormones to promote flowering 
involves the subtropical lychee tree. Normally with adequate moisture this tree 
flowers poorly because of its rapid vegetative growth during the period when 
floral primordia would otherwise develop. However, applications of sodium 
naphthaleneacetate inhibit vegetative growth and greatly stimulate flowering 
(156). Snow (187) has emphasized the possibilities of using chemical growth 
regulators in forestry to control wound healing, bud growth, stem elongation, 



101 



sprouting, vegetative propagation, flowering, abscission, respiration, photosyn- 
thesis, and other processes. These are challenging prospects. There is enough 
basic information available to do some of these things already. However, we need 
much more information on the basic nature of hormonal influences before we can 
fully exploit the control of tree growth. 

Water Relations 

Growth of trees probably is controlled more by water availability than by any 
other environmental factor (125). When transpiration exceeds absorption of 
water leaf moisture contents decrease and hydroactive stomatal closure occurs 
at a threshold value which varies with species. Stomates close earlier in the day 
for trees in dry soil than for those growing in well-watered soil (117). During 
the growing season soil moisture often remains at critically low levels for ex- 
tended periods (96, 98). Fritts (51) found, for example, that in Ohio soil 
moisture stayed below the wilting percentage from mid-July to mid-August. 
There is considerable evidence that water uptake and photosynthesis are reduced 
in drying soil before the wilting percentage is reached (4, 94, 137, 6, 14, 17, 157) . 
Loustalot (137) observed that after a drought rewatering of soil did not restore 
very rapidly the pre-drought rate of photosynthesis in trees. In Japan Negisi and 
Satoo (157) noted that photosynthesis of Pinus densi 'flora increased somewhat 
as the soil dried from slightly above to slightly below field capacity. However, 
photosynthesis was greatly reduced with further drying of the soil and long 
before the wilting percentage was approached. It has also been demonstrated that 
both growth and carbohydrate reserves of plants are greater if soil moisture is 
maintained close to field capacity than if it is allowed to fluctuate between the 
field capacity and wilting percentage (224). However, the effect of drought 
varies greatly with species and sometimes is related to morphological character- 
istics such as root-shoot ratios. Yurina (227) reported that photosynthesis of 
several species of trees was reduced in dry soil but the magnitude of the decrease 
was strongly influenced by depth of rooting. The wide variations among tree 
species in capacity for root growth (108) undoubtedly play a key role in the 
differences among species in physiological response to environmental stress. 

Water deficits alter both the quantity and character of tree growth. Among 
the well-known effects of internal water deficits are stomatal closure, reduced 
transpiration, reduced photosynthesis and starch hydrolysis (118, 125). In addi- 
tion, water stress alters both the viscosity and permeability of protoplasm. Changes 
in chemical composition and growth of trees may occur even with mild water 
deficits. Work with herbaceous plants showed that brief periods of water shortage 
caused decreased growth, reduction in uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, and 
destruction of ribonucleic acid in leaves (53, 54, 55, 56). 

Water contents of trees depend on relative rates of absorption and transpiration. 
Turgidity of tissues does not depend directly on soil moisture or rainfall but 
rather on factors which control transpiration and absorption (122). Absorption 
of water lags behind transpiration even in well-watered soils (114, 115). As 

102 




Fig. 2. — Types of water conducting systems in Norway pine (top photo) and northern pin 
oak (lower photo). Stem sections were made at height intervals of two feet after injection 
and transfusion of dye into the stem at the base. The radial line indicates the position of 
the injection knife which was inserted just below the lowermost stem section. Note the con- 
finement of water transport in oak to the stem periphery. The tendency for a spiral pattern 
of transport in these species should provide good crown distribution of injected chemicals. 
From Kozlowski and Winget (113). 



Kramer (122) points out, water deficits often are caused by excessive transpiration, 
by slow absorption in dry or cold soils, or by combinations of these. For these 
reasons greater emphasis should be placed on quantitative measurements of in- 
ternal water stress in terms of relative turgidity or diffusion pressure deficit in 
relation to growth (122) . In addition, much better methods of evaluating internal 
moisture stresses need to be worked out. Experiments are needed on specific 
effects of internal moisture stress on biochemical changes, growth of vegetative 
tissues, wood quality, floral initiation, and fruit development in forest trees. 
Paralleling such inquiries we need more field experiments of the type described 
by Zahner (228) in which moisture control of large trees is obtained by crown 
pruning, restricting root systems and lateral movement of soil moisture by trench- 
ing, by excluding rainwater from root zones by sheltering soil, and by irrigating 
trenched root systems. 

A recent important development in forest tree improvement is the use of 
systemic insecticides and fungicides Rudinsky (175) cited Reynolds as stating 
that the development of systemic insecticides is as significant in plant protection 
as was the discovery of DDT. Several investigators have used systemic insecticides 
successfully including, among others, Al-Azawi and Casida (2) in control of 
bark beetles and Giese et al (59) in control of balsam gall midge. 

In studies of vascular wilt diseases, such as oak wilt and Dutch elm disease, 
understanding of water transport within the tree and cellular responses to fungus 
metabolites would permit clarification of host-parasite relations. Pathologists also 
know that many chemicals and antibiotics are effective as fungicidal and fungistatic 
agents against fungi in culture, but the nature of their uptake, movement, absorp- 
tion and adsorption in tissues, conversion, and persistence is practically unknown. 

Chemotherapy of trees is clearly identified with water relations since the systemic 
chemicals generally move up in stems following water ascent in xylem tissues. 
However, there is great variation between conifers and hardwoods in the amount 
of stem cross sectional area involved and in the pattern of upward water transport 
(61, 176, 113) (Figure 2). Rudinsky and Vite (176) showed that patterns of 
water uptake in unilaterally injected conifers varied greatly among species. Five 
distinct patterns were described and characterized as spiral ascent, turning right; 
spiral ascent, turning left; interlocked ascent; sectorial, winding ascent; and sec- 
torial, straight ascent. These differences in patterns of water ascent were attributed 
to anatomical differences in xylem structure. The most complete distribution of 
water into the crown was shown by a system of spiral ascent and the least effective 
by a vertical ascent. These experiments point up the need for continuing research 
on water movement in trees. 

Mineral Relations 

Many studies have pointed up a general infertility of forested areas characterized 
by deficiencies of all major and some minor elements (60, 125, 163) . For example, 
Gessel et al (58) found growth of Douglas-fir retarded by nitrogen deficiency in 
the northwest; McComb (147) showed tree growth limited by nitrogen and 

103 



phosphorus deficiencies in the midwest; Heiberg and White (67) demonstrated 
potash deficiency of spruce grown in New York State; and Woodwell (225) 
found nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency to limit growth of pond pine in South 
Carolina. Over the years tremendous acreages have been planted with trees with- 
out regard for or knowledge of mineral requirements of the species involved, even 
in areas where something was known about soil fertility levels. Although no 
reasonable estimates are available of loss of increment by off-site planting, the 
fact remains that much of this loss was avoidable. 

As a result of such indiscriminant planting complete plantation failures or 
depressed growth resulted. Mineral deficiencies effected changes in biochemical 
and physiological processes and these in turn produced visible symptoms such as 
necrosis or chlorosis, or other morphological changes. The most common effect 
of mineral deficiency has been depressed growth often preceded by reduced 
chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis (125). Severe deficiencies have caused 
death of leaves and shoots. Internal changes have also resulted. Davis (35) found 
calcium deficiency in loblolly pine to cause reduction in bud size, small leaves, 
reduction in xylem and phloem, fewer primary' and more secondary stem tissues, 
and reduced cell division in root tips. Other deficiency symptoms have been 
observed including excessive resin production (88), hypertrophy and death of the 
cambium (73), and phloem necrosis (181). Many serious mineral deficiency 
problems are traceable to lack of minor elements. For example, growth of Monterey 
pine in Australia is severely inhibited by zinc deficiency (186). The effects of 
mineral deficiencies are complex because of the existing interactions. However, 
it is reasonably clear that mineral deficiency eventually decreases photosynthesis 
and translocation of carbohydrates to growing tissues (125). 

There is evidence that disease susceptibility in some cases increases under con- 
ditions of mineral deficiency. In longleaf pine mineral deficiency increases sus- 
ceptibility to brown spot needle blight (125). Ibberson and Streater (84) found 
that trees with white pine blight responded very favorably to fertilizer applications. 

Mineral requirements of different species vary greatly (125). Hobbs (74) 
observed that tip chlorosis was followed by death in several species of pine 
seedlings grown in magnesium-deficient cultures. However, the severity of the 
symptoms varied greatly with species. Walker (208) found potassium deficiency 
in black cherry to show up as a bright red leaf coloration in the margins while 
potassium-deficient gray birch leaves had chlorotic margins. 

During recent years much improvement in tree growth has been observed as 
a result of fertilization (58, 57, 86, 154, 221). Stoate (192) summarized work 
on mineral nutrition in Australia and Leyton (134) described fertilization ex- 
periments in England. An excellent review of forest fertilization was compiled 
by White and Leaf (222). Walker and Tisdale (209) recently summarized the 
scope of research on forest fertilization in the southeastern United States. They 
stated that approximately 150 substantial experiments dealing with growth and 
seed production of southern pines as affected by fertilizers are now underway. 

104 



As forest tree improvement becomes intensified fertilization will be a useful 
tool in seed orchards and plantations to increase growth and seed production. In 
fact, it probably will be imperative to use fertilizers to promote seed development 
in such high value trees. Allen (3) demonstrated that fertilizers increased cone 
production in longleaf pine from 1.3 to 13.5 cones per tree. Wenger (217) also 
showed that seed production could be materially increased with fertilizers. 

It is reemphasized that there should be increased research on identifying the 
specific mineral requirements of forest tree species. Much more information is 
needed on the internal concentrations of mineral elements with which various 
species make best growth. Basic data also are needed on the effects of site and 
climatic factors on the range of internal concentrations at which trees make best 
growth. Recently Fowells and Krause (48) found in controlled experiments that 
loblolly pine and Virginia pine grew best when nitrogen was supplied at a 
constant rate of from 25 to 100 ppm. They also found that a supply of only 
1 ppm. of phosphorus was adequate for the growth of these trees. Tamm (196) 
reported that best diameter growth of Scots pine was related to a foliage nitrogen 
content of 2.0 to 2.5 per cent. These are meaningful data but we need to know 
much more about mineral requirements of trees at various ontogenetic stages. 
With all the support for fertilization research in the field probably the most useful 
information will accrue from diverting some of the effort to very basic physiologi- 
cal research in controlled-environment facilities. 

Especially needed are experiments which will separate the importance of mineral 
relations from other factors in the ecological nexus which controls growth. A 
good example of the type of research needed is that of Hellmers et d (71). In 
this study response of chaparral trees and shrubs to soil fertilization was tested 
in both the laboratory and field. In the laboratory soil fertility was improved by 
adding minerals to soils while holding all other conditions favorable and constant. 
Field trials based on the laboratory results were then conducted to determine if 
mineral deficiencies were overshadowed by other environmental factors. 

In the laboratory experiments a five-factor factorial design was used in the 
fertilizer treatment with each action and interaction replicated. Water quality 
and movement through the soil mass were controlled. Uniform experimental 
plant material was obtained by growing from seed and discarding the extreme 
plants. The plants were distributed through the fertilizing schedule so that a 
statistical analysis showed the plants of any treatment and control to be from a 
homogeneous population. When analyses of dry weights of harvested plants 
were made significant interactions were found. Therefore the responses of in- 
dividual factors were separated from the interaction response. 

In the field experiments it was shown that growth was related to water de- 
ficiency. The relationship between soil fertility and natural supply of water was 
then tested. Plots were treated with nitrogen, phosphorus and combinations of 
these. Nitrogen alone stimulated growth but nitrogen and phosphorus in com- 
bination failed to produce additional growth increase. It was concluded that lack 
of available water in the field became critical for growth before all the naturally 

105 



available phosphorus was used by the plants. These studies emphasize the useful- 
ness of combining field experiments with laboratory techniques. 

Seed Physiology 

Reproduction of forests and production of nursery stock often are difficult be- 
cause seeds of well over half the species of forest trees exhibit dormancy to 
varying degrees. The nature of seed dormancy varies greatly. In some species 
seed dormancy is caused by seed coat impermeability to oxygen or water, and 
in others by conditions in the embryo itself. The embryo may be immature or, in 
morphologically mature embryos, there often is a deep-seated physiological in- 
ability to germinate even under the most favorable environmental conditions. 
Embryo dormancy often is attributed to inhibitors in the embryo or surrounding 
tissues. For example, in birch an inhibitor has been found in the pericarp (12), 
and in northern red oak in the cotyledons (33). Many different compounds 
appear to act as natural germination inhibitors including ammonia, hydrogen 
cyanide, ethylene, essential oils, alkaloids, unsaturated lactones, and unsaturated 
acids (47). Germination inhibitors have been found in almost all structures 
which act as seed coverings or embryo coverings within a seed. 

Dormancy of many seeds can be broken by pre-germination treatments such 
as soaking in acid or water, stratification or seed coat removal. However, the 
efficiency of these treatments varies markedly with the degree and kind of dor- 
mancy. Our inability to break embryo dormancy in many species may be attributed 
in large part to the dearth of knowledge of the specific biochemical changes which 
occur during the break of dormancy. 

The energy requirement for germination onset is met by increased respiration 
(202) . Oxygen limitations to the embryo often exist (195) . Respiration of eastern 
white pine seed can be increased by surrounding intact seeds with a high oxygen 
atmosphere, or by divesting seeds of seed coats (104) (Figure 3). Both treat- 
ments increase the partial pressure of oxygen around the embryo which in the 
intact seed may be low enough to interfere with necessary oxidative reactions. 
Pollock and Olney (169) suggested that one cause of breaking of dormancy in 
cherry seed may be increased availability of energy to the embryo because of an 
increase in supply of phosphate acceptors. 

Since the germinative process appears to be linked to respiratory activity after 
water is imbibed, efforts to stimulate oxygen uptake in dormant seeds may prove 
useful. For example, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment has been found to increase 
germination in several species including Douglas-fir (28, 182) and eastern white 
pine (101). 

Ching (28) partitioned the normal course of germination of Douglas-fir seed 
into four distinct stages: 

Stage 1. The imbibition phase, which usually is short and characterized by 
almost linear increase of respiration and water uptake. This phase usually 
provides adequate hydration for enzymatic activity. 

106 



Stage 2. The antephase or mobilization phase, which is characterized by a 
constant respiratory rate and respiratory quotient, and a temporary cessation 
of further water uptake. 

Stage 3. The pre-emergence phase, which is characterized by a gradual in- 
crease of water uptake and respiratory rate, and in rapid rise of the respiratory 
quotient to approximately 1.15 at the time of radicle emergence. This stage 
is the active mobilization of the energy source and cellular components prepa- 
ratory to later stages of germination which are accompanied by growth in 
terms of cell number, cell size and tissue differentiation. 
Stage 4. Increase in respiration and water uptake phase. Although respira- 
tion and water uptake are increased the respiratory quotient declines in the 
seedling and attached, partially- digested endosperm. This stage apparently 
indicates a remobilization for cotyledon emergence. 

Ching found that seed soaked in hydrogen peroxide failed to exhibit Stage 2 
(constant respiration, consistent respiratory quotient, and cessation of water up- 
take). The third stage was considerably shortened, while the fourth stage was 
similar to that of the untreated controls. Oxygen and water uptake were sub- 
stantially higher in hydrogen-peroxide-treated seeds than those of the controls. 
This probably indicates that conversion of fats to reserve carbohydrates was 
higher in hydrogen-peroxide-treated seeds and more synthesis of cellular com- 
ponents took place in them than in untreated seeds. Hence, it appeared that 
hydrogen peroxide stimulated germination of Douglas-fir seed by accelerating 
respiration during the antephase of mobilization. This work is cited in some 
detail as an example of an approach useful in understanding the blocks to 
germination in different seeds. After the nature of germination is better under- 
stood for seeds of different species the blocks to germination can then be attacked. 
In addition, more information is needed on physiological indices of seed maturity. 
As Rediske (170) pointed out, knowledge of seed maturity would make possible 
processing of only mature seed, full extension of the harvest season, and storage 
of mature seed under optimal conditions. 

Physiological Implications in Silviculture 

Many practicing silviculturists decry the need of a sound foundation of basic 
information on which to build a rational system of silviculture. For this reason 
more effort should be directed to a continuing study of the physiological implica- 
tions of silvicultural techniques. Many speculative concepts of the physiological 
basis of response to thinning, pruning, and use of herbicides, for example, should 
be subjected to rigorous experimental scrutiny, under controlled conditions if 
possible. Over the years it has been assumed that in competition trees die from 
lack of photosynthate, but there is evidence that auxin deficiency and other con- 
siderations also play a significant role (107). It y has been assumed that lower 
branches which prune naturally die from starvation, yet the water and hormonal 
relations have not been satisfactorily evaluated. For intelligent pruning programs 
we need to know which branches contribute to stem growth, and how much, as 

107 




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108 






well as which branches are parasitic and under what conditions. In this con- 
nection the statistical technique of Labyak and Schumacher (129) might be useful. 
They demonstrated that in loblolly pine the average contribution of a single branch 
to the cross sectional growth of the main stem depended on branch location 
and number of branchlets. A branch with less than three branchlets in the lower 
half of the tree length, or a branch with less than five branchlets in the lower 
quarter of tree length contributed nothing to growth of the main stem. 

A good example of how a knowledge of physiology can be put to practical 
use is in the work of Wilcox et al (223). They first studied cambial activity of 
several species of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Later in using arsenic com- 
pounds for chemical debarking they found the gymnosperms peeled best if 
treated immediately after the natural sap peeling season began, while angiosperms 
peeled best if treated two to three weeks after the beginning of the sap peeling 
season. The significance of physiological considerations in forest production can 
also be illustrated by a discussion of the modern use of herbicides in forest stands. 
There is considerable evidence that in the future herbicides will be considered 
indispensible for management of large forest areas (100). The tremendous use- 
fulness of herbicides in stand regeneration, release of conifers and crop trees, 
brush control, stand improvement following harvest cuts, plantation establish- 
ment, production of nursery stock, firelane and utility line maintenance, and 
control of tree diseases, has been amply demonstrated and documented (100). 
Herbicides are indeed an important silvicultural tool for restoring forests which 
show much lower productivity than they should because of the presence of 
inferior species, wrong density of stocking, and low quality trees. 

In releasing conifers with herbicides we must keep in mind the physiological 
characteristics of all the species in the stand. Conifers which are growing actively 
at the time of herbicide application may be killed by even light applications. 
In the Lake States foliage sprays caused injury to new growth of white spruce 
until mid July; to red pine, white pine and Norway spruce until August 1, and 
to jack and Scotch pine until August 15 (5). To time the applications of herbi- 
cides it is important to know that some species may grow twice as long as others 
(96, 98, 100, 110, 111, 125). In addition, the tendency of some species to form 
lammas shoots in late summer from bursting of current-year buds (146) may 
pose a problem. 

In intensive management the removal of individual trees with herbicides to 
control stand composition and quality may kill adjacent crop trees by "backflash" 
or translocation of herbicides through root grafts (16, 32). The wide occurrence 
of natural root grafting in many species of forest trees is well known (131, 133, 
226, 127, 16, 102, 103). Bormann (16) demonstrated movement of water, 
minerals, foods, dyes and poisons between trees through natural root fusions. 
Hence, basic studies of translocation are needed to evaluate the significance of 
root grafting and the actual amount of parasitism which exists among trees of 
different species. 



109 



Still other physiological considerations are involved in use of herbicides. In 
most hardwood stands a really efficient elimination of competing hardwoods 
involves both killing of tops and prevention of resprouting. But with many 
undesirable species this is not easily done. Many herbicides cause excellent top- 
kill of hardwoods but few will kill tops and also prevent resprouting in certain 
seasons (210). Application of some basic physiology is exceedingly useful for 
there is much evidence that sprouting vigor is correlated with carbohydrate re- 
serves. In general, sprouting is least abundant from stumps of trees cut in early 
summer when trees have leafed out and exhausted carbohydrate reserves, and it 
is greatest from stumps of trees cut in the dormant season (29, 125). Aspen and 
other species sprayed with herbicides at the time of full leaf development seldom 
sprout, but they develop suckers and sprouts readily when sprayed at other sea- 
sons (5, 193) . Here then is an example of how basic information on carbohydrate 
cycles and sprouting can be applied in a conifer release program. It might also 
be added that we need basic physiological research to find a way to artificially 
stimulate dormant buds so they will be active at the time of herbicide application 
rather than later. 

Some species are difficult to kill with any herbicide because leaf absorption is 
inhibited by a thick cuticle (20, 21). Hence, more research is needed on cuticle 
penetration of herbicides and factors influencing their effective translocation. Ex- 
periments also are needed to determine herbicide formulations which are most 
efficient on different species. Experiments show that 2,4-D moves with carbo- 
hydrates in phloem. Therefore, efficient photosynthetic activity assures good herbi- 
cide distribution. An understanding of the effects of environmental factors on 
photosynthesis would aid in developing refined techniques of herbicide ap- 
plications. 

In this brief reference to use of herbicides there was consideration, either 
directly stated or implied, of seasonal sprouting, bud dormancy, translocation of 
water, minerals, hormones, and carbohydrates, and photosynthesis. All of these 
are physiological matters which inescapably must enter our consideration of forest 
production. 

THE NEED FOR BASIC PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 

Implicit in the challenges of forest production for the future are needs for 
training more forest physiologists. Only the specialist can be expected to provide 
solutions to difficult research problems. Inevitably forestry education will be 
confronted with the problem of providing a stronger background in chemistry, 
physics and biology for the accomplished undergraduate destined to do graduate 
work in preparation for a research career. At present, general forestry curricula 
require a sampling of a wide spectrum of professional forestry courses. Many of 
these are not a substitute for the basics for specialized research training. 

Over the years the climate in forestry has not been exactly conducive for basic 
research. Accumulation of fundamental information that would improve forest 
production often has perhaps inadvertently, been restrained by an administrative 

110 



climate which was somewhat hostile to fundamental research because of its alleged 
impracticality. Richardson (173) cited the case of a research director who found it 
easier in his budget to "indent for a bulldozer than a test tube." One accomplished 
investigator who did classical basic research on mineral nutrition of trees some 
thirty years ago dropped his work completely for failure to find sponsorship. 
Fortunately, however, the situation is changing rapidly and in the right direction. 
The last decade has seen basic research laboratories supported not only by universi- 
ties, but also by federal agencies and industrial concerns as well. Forestry curricula 
are emphasizing more physiological training and forest physiologists are now 
in demand. Furthermore, the several recent conferences devoted exclusively to 
forest physiology and the accelerated flow of research papers in this field indicate 
growing realization of the importance of physiological research as a prelude to 
wide practical application (119, 194, 173, 148). Kramer (119) pointed out as 
a parallel that medicine made its greatest progress when it began to concentrate 
on biochemistry and physiology. Many of the most useful applications of science 
have turned out to be outgrowths of fundamental research that was not designed 
a priori to yield immediately applicable information (95). 

SUMMARY 

There is agreement on the need for handling forests to produce trees of 
selected species, with good form, quality and rate of growth, as well as resistance 
to disease and insects. Meeting these objectives will require increased emphasis 
on physiology of tree growth. Physiologists can contribute to tree improvement by 
identifying and characterizing the processes controlling growth and demonstrating 
how heredity and environment influence various physiological processes. The 
importance of internal processes in growth control can be emphasized by time-lag 
responses of trees to environmental changes. 

Physiological implications in forest growth are reviewed and some of the more 
important research needs emphasized. Especially needed are studies of photo- 
synthesis in relation to growth as well as studies on the relation of carbohydrate 
production to its utilization in the tree. In the field of hormone physiology the 
need for basic studies on the mechanism of flowering and the relation of growth 
regulators to wood quality is stressed. Water relations research also is needed 
especially on methods of evaluating internal moisture stresses and on water trans- 
port in relation to chemotherapy. In addition more research is needed on mineral 
requirements of trees and on the mechanism of seed dormancy. 

In order to have intelligent silviculture more attention should be given to 
physiological implications of silvicultural practices such as thinning and pruning. 
Reference is made to need for knowledge of sprouting, bud dormancy, transloca- 
tion of water, minerals, hormones, and carbohydrates as well as factors controlling 
photosynthesis for efficient use of herbicides in handling of forests. Improvement 
of forest production will require more trained physiologists and increased support 
for research on basic physiology of trees. 

Ill 



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51. Fritts, H. C. 1956. Radial growth of beech and soil moisture in a Central 
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56. and J. Bonner. 1959. The response of the young tomato plant 

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90. Kienholz, R. 1941. Seasonal course of height growth in some hardwoods 
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93. Koch, W. 1957. Der Tagesgang der "Productivitat der Transpiration." 
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96 . 1955. Tree growth, action and interaction of soil and other 

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97 # . 1957. Effect of continuous high light intensity on photo- 
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105. and J. E. Kuntz. 1960a. Unpublished data. 

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108. and W. H. Scholtes. 1948. Growth of roots and root hairs 

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109. and F. X. Schumacher. 1943. Estimation of stomated foliar 

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115. . 1937. The relation between rate of transpiration and rate 

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124. and J. P. Decker. 1944. Relation between light intensity 

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125. and T. T. Kozlowski. I960. Physiology of Trees. McGraw 

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146. McCabe, R. A. and R. F. Labisky. 1959- Leader forking of red and 
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150. Mergen, F. and S. G. Cutting. 1957. Male flowers on one-year-old Mugo 
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151. Miller, E. E., C. A. Shadbolt, and L. Holm. 1956. Use of an optical 
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155. Motley, J. A. 1949. Correlation of elongation in white and red pine with 
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156. Nakata, S. 1955. Floral initiation and fruit-set in lychee with special 
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157. Negisi, K. and T. Satoo. 1954. The effect of drying of soil on apparent 
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158. , , and K. Yagi. 1957. A method for the rapid 

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163. Paine, L. A. I960. Studies in forest pathology. XXII. Nutrient defi- 
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164. Parker, J. 1953. Photosynthesis of Picea excelsa in winter. Ecology 
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176. and J. P. Vite. 1959. Certain ecological and phylogenetic 

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178. Ryuzo, K. and L. D. Davis. 1959. The comparison between the net 
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183. Shippy, W. B. 1930. The influence of environment on the callusing of 
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186. Smith, M. E. and N. S. Bayliss. 1942. The necessity of zinc for Pinus 
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189. Snyder, W. E. 1954. The rooting of leafy stem cuttings. Nat'l. Hort. 
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201. Todd, G. W. 1958. Effect of ozone and ozonated 1-hexene on respira- 
tion and photosynthesis of leaves. Plant Physiol. 33: 416-420. 

202. Toole, E. H., S. B. Hendricks, H. A. Borthwick and V. K. Toole. 1956. 
Physiology of seed germination. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 7: 299-324. 

203. Tourney, J. W. 1921. Damage to forests and other vegetation by smoke, 
ash, and fumes from manufacturing plants in Naugatuck Valley, Conn. 
Jour. Forestry 19: 267-373. 

204. Tranquillini, W. 1954. Die Lichtabhangigkeit der Assimilation von Son- 
nen und Schattenblattern einer Buche unter okologischen Bedingungen 
Proc. 8th Int. Bot. Cong. Paris, Sect. 13, pp. 100-102. 

205. . 1955. Die Bedeutung des Lichtes und der Temperatur fur 

die Kohlensaureassimilation von Pinus cemhra Jungwachs an einem 
hochalpinen Standort. Planta 46(2): 154-178. 

206. . 1957. Standortsklima, Wasserbilanz und C0 2 -gaswechsel 

junger Zirben {Pinus cemhra L.) an der alpinen Waldgrenze. Planta 
49: 612-661. 

207. Uhl, A. 1937. Untersuchungen liber die Assimilationverhaltnisse und die 
Ursachen ihrer Unterschiede in der Gattung Pinus. Jahrh. Wiss. Bot. 
85: 368-421. 

208. Walker, L. C. 1956. Foliage symptoms as indicators of potassium defi- 
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209. and S. L. Tisdale. 1959. Forest fertilization research in the 

south. Nat'l Plant Food Inst. Publ. Wash., D. C. 

2io. and H. V. Wiant, Jr., 1959. Silvicide screening. Georgia 

Forest Res. Council Progress Rept. 

211. Wareing, P. F. 1958a. The physiology of cambial activity. Jour. Inst. 
Wood Sci. 1: 34-42. 

212. . 1958b. Reproductive development in Pinus sylvestris. 

Chapt. 35 in K. V. Thimann (ed.) . The physiology of forest trees. Ronald 
Press, New York, N, Y. 

213. . 1959. Problems of juvenility and flowering in trees. Jour. 

Linn. Soc. Lond. LVI. (336): 282-289. 

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215. Wedding, R. L., L. A. Riehl, and W. A. Rhoads. 1952. Effect of petroleum 
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216. , L. C. Erickson and B. L. Brannaman. 1954. Effect of 2, 

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123 



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225. Woodwell, G. M. 1958. Factors controlling growth of pond pine seedlings 
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158-161. 



124 



Silvicultural Considerations 

Leon S. Minckler 

Research Forester, United States Forest Service 

Central States Forest Experiment Station 



This symposium on challenges in forest production includes a consideration of 
soils, physiology, silviculture, and forest management. My subject is silviculture, 
but before starting I think it will be helpful to relate the four above fields to each 
other. Then if I stray a little from my assigned subject, the overall perspective 
will remain intact. 

The quality of the site (the soil and the climate) determines the potential or 
upper level of forest production. Soil, air, water, and sunlight are sources of the 
basic materials for growth. The processes by which trees use these basic materials, 
and thereby live and grow, are covered in the field of forest physiology. Silvi- 
culture is, essentially, the manipulation and culture of the forest cover for man's 
purposes by using an integrated knowledge of soils, physiology, silvics, and 
genetics. Forest management is concerned with the business and economic aspects 
of protecting and growing forests. I will discuss silvicultural considerations and 
try not to get too far into related fields. 

Silviculture includes (1) genetic improvement of trees, (2) recognition and 
use of superior races or strains of trees, (3) control of forest species composition, 
(4) methods of obtaining desirable tree reproduction, (5) methods of establishing 
forests by artificial means, (6) control of yield and quality of products desired, 
(7) systems of harvest cuttings for sustained yield, and (8) the handling of 
forests and forest lands for multiple uses. Each of these subjects contain challenges 
for American forestry. 

PRINCIPAL BASIC TO THE SILVICULTURAL CHALLENGES 

Perhaps the most important general challenge to foresters is understanding the 
basis of our profession, i.e., the art and science of managing forests for man's 
needs. This will require a long time and much more basic research. Elsewhere 
(Minckler, 1958) I have discussed some concepts basic to the practice of hard- 
wood silviculture. Here I will discuss some of the factors basic to the silvicultural 
challenges in forest production with the hope that these challenges will be better 
understood. 

It has been recently reported by Hellmers and Bonner (1959) that forests 
under near optimum conditions can "capture" 2.0 to 2.5 per cent of the total 
visible light energy available. It is stated that this rate of efficiency is similar to 
that of field crops, and the authors conclude that these percentages roughly 
approximate the maximum capacity for all plant cover. While a ceiling on efficiency 
undoubtedly exists, because of the nature of the photosynthetic process and the 

125 



amount of carbon dioxide in the air, there is plenty of room below the ceiling 
where a forester can manipulate forest stands and sites for better production. 

At each particular place on the earth there is a secondary or local ceiling on 
wood production dependent on site quality and climate. This ceiling on produc- 
tive capacity may be vastly different among places. Generally, foresters have to 
accept these ceilings although in some cases the site quality can be altered. The 
job of the forester, and more particularly the silviculturist, is to known how to 
channel the greatest possible amount of energy flow per unit of time into the 
kind and quality of forest values desired. This is the overall challenge to our 
profession. 

WAYS TO INCREASE TOTAL WOOD YIELD 

Total wood yield can be increased by silvicultural means and by changing the 
quality of the site. This has been called "creative silviculture" (Ostrom, 1959). 
We can manipulate the forest cover to increase yield in the following ways : 

1 . By changing the density and structure of the forest. However, this does not 
alter the total amount of dry weight of wood produced within a wide range of 
density and structure. Manipulation of the forest within this range is the heart 
of yield and quality control. 

2. By increasing the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration of crop trees and 
the forest stand as a whole. This is closely related to changing density and may be 
accomplished by reducing the amount of live tissue where respiration is high in 
relation to the photosynthate produced. (Our knowledge concerning this, how- 
ever, is very meager.) 

3. By making genetic improvement in the tree species grown. Insofar as this 
increases the total dry weight of wood produced on a given site, it results in 
greater efficiency of the tree for utilizing the basic ingredients available to it. In 
some cases only the quality or form of wood produced may be improved. 

4. Through the use of new or different species, strains, or races of trees on 
particular areas which give greater total wood production or improved quality 
and bole form. 

Ways of changing forest site productivity to increase wood yields are: 

1. Restoring lost productivity of abused sites by protection from fire, grazing, 
and abnormal erosion and the use of species adapted to the soil and climate. 

2. Improving the productivity of the site by cultivation, fertilization, or irriga- 
tion. These are usually expensive tools but will probably be used more and more 
in the new "creative silviculture." 

3. Eliminating forest floor vegetation that competes with trees and thus detracts 
from wood production. Obviously this cannot be used effectively during periods 
of natural regeneration or where it conflicts with other desired uses. 

There are, then, various ways to increase the production of wood from forests. 
There are challenges associated with all of them. The classical method, and the 
one used almost exclusively until the last two or three decades, is to control net 
yield, quality, and form of wood grown through cultural techniques. These include 

126 



site preparation, weedings, release cuttings, improvement cuttings, thinnings, 
density-structure controls, harvest cuttings, and artificial regeneration. These prac- 
tices are still the heart of silviculture, but newer concepts and methods are begin- 
ning to receive well-justified attention. 

SILVICULTURAL CHALLENGES 

Silvicultural challenges should be considered against the background of dimin- 
ishing virgin forests and the expanding world need for all kinds of forest products 
and benefits. Three things are evident: First, we must grow our timber rather than 
find it; second, our silviculture must be intensified; and third, we must learn how 
to accommodate the demands for different uses made of the forest. (In the Forest 
Service we refer to the latter as "multiple use.") With these needs in mind, let's 
name specifically the challenges that face us in silviculture and discuss each one 
briefly. 

1. SHvical characteristics of trees and forests. We should face the fact that 
we do not adequately understand the behavior of individual trees or aggregations 
of trees. The biological and physical basis for tree behavior is covered in the 
subject of tree physiology. However, the outward response of trees, especially the 
interaction of trees within stands to each other and to their environment, is in 
the field of silviculture. This is akin to human sociology except that trees lack 
mobility and must prosper or die in one specific spot in direct competition with 
other trees and plants. Therefore, ecological laws apply in a rigid manner to 
trees, and foresters must know and understand these laws before they can properly 
manage trees and forests for the greatest benefits to people. 

Some recent research in southern Illinois on light and soil moisture in hardwood 
stands illustrates the attempt to gain a better understanding of the relations be- 
tween light, soil moisture, and the development of reproduction. We now know 
the total amount of light received in forest openings of different sizes for day-long 
periods and how this varies by aspect and time. For example, the center of open- 
ings with a diameter equal to the height of surrounding trees receives in June 
about 45 per cent of full day-long sunlight on both northerly and southerly aspects. 
In September north slope openings of this size receive only about 10 per cent 
while south slope openings receive nearly 60 per cent of full sunlight in the open. 
In June and early July available soil moisture in both small and large openings is 
high, often 15 to 20 per cent greater than under the canopy, but in late summer 
soil moisture often approaches the wilting point throughout the forest. This 
coincidence of good light and soil moisture conditions on north slopes and of 
high radiation and low soil moisture on south slopes helps explain the observed 
differences in composition and behavior of reproduction. 

2. Rehabilitation of existing forests. A large portion of the forests of this 
country are unmanaged (Forest Service, 1958). By unmanaged I mean that past 
cutting has been done without regard to appropriate silvicultural practices or 
that the forest is still in its natural condition. The cut stands characteristically have 
low stocking, with poor diameter distribution, undesirable species composition, 

127 



and a high percentage of low-quality and cull trees. The virgin stands are usually 
over-stocked and, because of heavy mortality, net growth rate may be close to 
2ero. A high-priority task (after protection) is to put these forests in a dynamic 
condition by removing the overburden of cull, low-quality, and mature trees 
(Minckler and Hosner, 1956) . This, together with forest protection, is the highest 
priority action program needed in American forests today. Although the costs- 
and-returns aspect is a forest management consideration, the methods used in 
stand rehabilitation and the biological response of the trees and forests are a 
part of silviculture. 

On our Kaskaskia Experimental Forest many hardwood stands have received 
a rehabilitation cutting treatment. One example will suffice. An upland hardwood 
stand of 4,200 board feet volume and 78 square feet basal area per acre was re- 
duced to 2,000 board feet and 48 square feet basal area by a rehabilitation treat- 
ment. All merchantable trees not considered good growing stock were cut for 
sawlogs, and all cull trees were killed. Eight years later the volume was 4,700 
board feet and the basal area 57 square feet per acre. This net growth of 335 
board feet per acre per year contrasted with a net growth of about 150 board 
feet before the treatment. In addition, the average quality of the stand was greatly 
increased by the removal of cull and low-quality trees, and reproduction developed 
rapidly in the openings. 

3. Genetic improvement of trees by selection and breeding. The objectives of 
genetic improvement are to develop more photosynthetically efficient trees, to 
produce more usable trees, or both. In the long run the possibilities are great, 
but we can only partially surmount the limitations on production made by site 
quality and climate. Probably the greatest gains can be made in quality character- 
istics such as improved tree form, bole characteristics, and wood properties. Impor- 
tant gains may also be possible in developing trees resistant to diseases and insects. 

One weakness of a program of improving trees by genetic means lies in man's 
imperfect knowledge of what he will want in the future. Genetic improvements 
in trees, especially as a means of increasing wood production, will usually require 
many years. Programs pointed toward increasing the harmony between tree species 
or races and particular site and climatic conditions are basic, and the need for 
them is evident. The same is true for inheritance of the basic components of wood 
structure such as cell wall thickness, cell size, and fiber length. Aside from these, 
we should select our genetic goals with great care. 

4. Introduction of new species or strains. We cannot always assume that native 
species of trees will be the most productive for our needs. It is true that they 
usually are, but exceptions exist, especially in regions that have only a few desir- 
able species. The selection of better species for specific areas remains a challenge 
but should be approached with caution and scientific regard for the environmental 
requirements and disease and insect resistance of the species being introduced. A 
"shotgun" approach of testing many species may accidentally succeed but usually 
is inefficient. Generally, species to be introduced on a trial basis should be native 
to a region having a similar climate. 

128 



Examples of successfully introduced species include Monterey pine in South 
Africa and various exotic conifers in the British Isles. Loblolly pine from the 
northern part of its natural range promises success as a fiber crop in the southern 
part of the Central States. More often, however, introduction of non-native species 
has been a failure. 

5. Increasing total wood growth by increasing effective photosynthesis. 
Theoretically, the elimination of living tree tissue where photosynthesis is low in 
relation to respiration would increase the net growth of woody material (Baker, 
1950). Branches with low rates of photosynthesis use most of the photosynthate 
produced locally just to stay alive and to add wood to themselves rather than to 
the bole. In addition, these members use water, nutrients, and possibly shade 
smaller trees or reproduction. In some cases it is possible that branches may 
"borrow" photosynthate from the remainder of the tree. This behavior explains 
why lower live branches can usually be pruned without loss of bole growth. Long 
branches or trees with a small area of foliage have a low leaf area in proportion 
to the respiring live tissue. Old trees have a high proportion of respiring tissue 
in relation to chlorophyl-bearing tissue, thus causing decreases in net growth 
(Hellmers and Bonner, 1959) • Forest floor vegetation (often unwanted by man) 
uses water and nutrients that would otherwise go to production of usable wood. 

Although we are cognizant of a variable relationship between photosynthesis 
and respiration, we still do not know how to control it to increase wood production. 
Fortunately, much of what we do in thinning, improvement cutting, and pruning 
tends to eliminate the inefficient trees and branches ; but we need to learn how 
to do this in a more specific and positive way. 

6. Yield and quality control of timber stands when products are used as un- 
modified wood. In yield and quality control we are concerned with producing 
maximum yields of wood of the highest quality for the products wanted: For 
example, wood suitable for panelling, furniture, veneer, structural members, and 
specialized uses. Put another way, we want to channel the basic photosynthetic 
energy into usable form in the shortest time. Knowledge and "know-how" must 
start with reproducing the forest and continue through harvest cutting. This re- 
quires understanding the behavior of individual trees as well as their behavior 
when they grow together in stands. Many-aged stands of mixed species are obvi- 
ously more complex than even-aged pure stands ; and, possibly, for that reason 
the former have been studied very little. 

Trees growing together affect one another profoundly. Foresters talked about 
"normal" stands as a desirable goal. Now we know that "normal" stands are 
rarely found, are static in nature, and are not what the forest manager wants at 
all. Even so, we still do not know the best stocking and tree-size distribution for 
specific species, sites, and products that will give maximum sustained returns. 
We don't know how even- and many-aged stands would differ in this regard. Our 
information on optimum 1 stocking-structure for mixed many-aged stands is piti- 



1 Foresters commonly use the term "optimum stocking," but it is understood that there 
may be several optimums corresponding to different conditions or levels of management. 

129 



fully small. We can make some reasonably good estimates, but we do not fully 
understand how trees growing in groups (stands) behave. When we have this 
information, the quality and quantity of timber products can be increased sig- 
nificantly. 

A start toward obtaining these answers for uneven-aged hardwoods is being 
made in southern Illinois by the establishment of 60 one-half-acre experimental 
plots in which both the stand stocking and structure are varied. All components 
of stand growth are being studied in relation to stocking- structure, species com- 
position, and site. A few sample results will illustrate the work. Based on six- 
year-growth results for one replication, net volume growth on low-stocked stands 
(40 square feet basal area) was 75 per cent as much as for high-stocked stands 
(80 square feet basal area) . Stands with large-tree structure grew in net volume 
about 75 per cent as much as stands with relatively small-tree structure. Ingrowth 
was higher on poorer sites and in stands with smaller trees. Except for the un- 
treated check plot, mortality did not occur on the better sites but did occur on 
the heavier stocked stands on poorer sites. Volume-growth rate expressed as 
simple interest ranged from 6.5 per cent for low-stocked stands with smaller 
tree structure to 2.0 per cent for high-stocked stands with larger tree structure. 

We know even less about the behavior of individual trees than of stands. Has 
anyone ever watched a sapling grow to maturity and recorded the pertinent data 
associated with growth? What happens to the crook in the bole of a three-inch 
sapling? How many of the bole defects in a six-inch tree are still visible when the 
tree is sixteen inches, and how many new ones have developed and why? How 
can bole defects (mostly from bole branches) be greatly and effectively reduced? 
Is artificial pruning an effective and economical way of reducing defects in hard- 
wood logs? How is tree growth related to crown and other tree characteristics, and 
what growth rate is best to produce the grain and wood density needed for par- 
ticular products? Such questions could be asked almost indefinitely. In short, the 
challenge is to obtain the information needed to understand and control the factors 
which determine the quality of trees for particular products. 

Examples to illustrate the extent of the bole defect problem can be given. The 
average pole-sized black and scarlet oak in well-stocked but unmanaged upland 
stands in southern Illinois had about twenty bole sprouts per ten feet of bole. 
White oak had about half as many. Small sawtimber of black and scarlet oak had 
fourteen total defects per ten feet of bole in the butt log and twenty-four in the 
upper logs. Larger trees and different species generally had fewer defects. The 
number and kind of bole defects differed among places, sites, species, tree size, 
and in position on the bole. 

7. Yield and quality control for production of wood as a raw material for re- 
processing. The challenge of growing wood as a raw material is to produce the 
maximum volume and weight of wood of desired characteristics per unit of time. 
To do this we must determine the optimum stocking-structure of the stand and 
the correct rotation length to give top yields of wood material by species and sites. 
This has sometimes been called "cellulose forestry." Rotation lengths would be 

130 



much shorter than for "sawlog forestry" and methods of obtaining reproduction 
should be modified because trees would be younger and smaller at time of harvest. 
Furthermore, quantity yield would need to be coordinated with quality of the 
wood produced. Wood quality characteristics could include chemical composition, 
fiber length and strength, and density. 

Improving quantity and quality of the wood might well result from improving 
the genetic strains of trees. For example, unpublished work by Dr. Steve Boyce 
at our Carbondale field office indicates that 30 to 40 per cent of cottonwood fiber- 
length variability is inherited; as yet we have no control over this. But, aside from 
genetics, we do not fully know the environmental factors and silvicultural prac- 
tices involved in the most efficient production of wood for reprocessing. 

8. Changing the site quality. In agriculture it is standard procedure to modify 
site quality by artificial means. In forestry, site improvement is still a challenge. 
Forest sites can undoubtedly be improved to some extent by fertilization, irrigation, 
and cultivation, to name the chief methods ; but little of this has been done. How- 
ever, the "farming" of cottonwood on alluvial lands in the South using ground 
preparation, fertilization, cultivation, and even irrigation has already started on 
a small scale and promises to expand rapidly. 

Conversely, sites can and have been depleted by excessive burning, erosion, 
excessive oxidation of organic matter, or excessive accumulation of raw humus. 
Some European foresters (Plochman, I960) believe that several generations of 
"unnatural" pure even-aged stands can result in great site deterioration, and they 
have many examples to prove it. In America forestry is young, but examples of 
site depletion by excessive burning and grazing followed by erosion are common- 
place. The millions of acres of abandoned old fields requiring artificial regenera- 
tion constitute a site challenge in themselves. Eroded, compacted woodland soils 
are also widely prevalent though less spectacular. 

9. Development of yield tables for managed stands. We have no proven, 
accurate yield tables for our managed forest stands. Furthermore, we have no yield 
tables or growth-prediction equations of any kind for managed uneven-aged stands. 
We operate by estimates and educated guesses. To develop the needed yield tables 
is a tremendous job and will require decades of forest management and research 
to complete. Not only do we need yield tables by species, sites, stocking, and 
systems of silviculture, but also we need accurate and convenient units of measure- 
ment for expressing stocking, structure, growth, and yield. Both forest managers 
and silviculturists need this information. The humiliation to our forestry profes- 
sion caused by these deficiencies makes the challenge even more acute. 

10. Sustained yield and multiple use. How do we integrate a sustained high 
production of quality wood with other compatible uses of the forest? How do 
we accomplish really sustained yield in the first place? We have not been practicing 
forestry in this country long enough to find out. It involves obtaining reproduction, 
controlling density and quality in the stands, regulating cutting cycle length, and 
improving methods of harvest cutting. We must learn how to sustain forest yields 
over many rotations without deterioration of the forest or the site. Then we must 

131 



learn how to modify these practices to accommodate wildlife, watershed, and rec- 
reation uses which are already making pressing demands on our forests. This is 
an increasingly important challenge to foresters. For example, group-selection 
silviculture in most hardwood types meets the requirements for successful repro- 
duction and good productivity without the exclusion of watershed, recreation, or 
wildlife values. However, excessive recreational use in such stands would lower 
or eliminate forestry values. Likewise, excessive deer browsing would make impos- 
sible the regeneration of tree species in the openings. This has happened. We 
must find a balance between the various uses on forest areas or abandon sustained 
yield and multiple use on these areas. Will the tidal wave of man's needs and 
desires overwhelm the forests before we learn how to cope with it? We foresters 
must show the way so that the people can act! 

A FINAL WORD 

We are celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the College. The forestry pro- 
fession in America is older than that. How does it happen, then, that there are 
so many challenges, so many unsolved problems? Have we been remiss? Regard- 
less of the answers to these questions, we have work to do ; and we must get on 
with the job by : ( 1 ) learning and understanding the basic biological and economic 
principles of our profession, (2) developing "know-how" to do the required jobs, 
and (3) applying this know-how to our forest resources. 

LITERATURE CITED 

1. Baker, F. S. 1950. Principles of silviculture. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 
York. 414 pp., illus. 

2. Forest Service. 1958. Timber resources for America's future. U. S. Dept. 
Agr. Forest Res. Rept. No. 14, 713 pp., illus. 

3. Hellmers, Henry and James Bonner. 1959. Photosynthetic limits of forest 
tree yield. Soc. Amer. Foresters Proc, 1959: 32-35. 

4. Minckler, Leon S. 1958. Concepts basic to the practice of hardwood silvi- 
culture. Soc. Amer. Foresters Proc, 1958: 155-157. 

5- and J. F. Hosner. 1956. How to farm your forest. U. S. Dept. 

Agr., Forest Serv., Cent. States Forest Expt. Sta. Misc. Release 11, 66 pp., illus. 

6. Ostrom, Carl E. 1959. Potentialities for improving forest growth in southern 
forest soils. Eighth Ann. Forestry Symposium Proc, Baton Rouge, La. 1959: 
120-131, illus. 

7. Plochman, Richard. I960. The struggle for mixed forests. Amer. Forests 
66(8): 12, illus. 



132 



Soils Considerations 

Donald P. White 

Associate Professor of Forestry 

Michigan State University 



The challenge to increase forest production in the years ahead logically includes 
a consideration of the soil as part of the dynamic ecosystem operating in every 
forest community. 

Those concerned with the relative significance of the various factors which 
comprise a forest site, as well as those primarily concerned with creating wealth 
from the growth on that site, are becoming increasingly aware of the complexities 
of the "organism" with which they are working. Recently Ovington (I960) in 
England and Hills (I960) in Canada have elaborated on the ecosystem concept to 
show the importance of using the whole site approach to not only site classifica- 
tion, but to the establishment of a logical basis for silviculture and management. 

The soil is the basic medium on which vegetation and climate can produce 
forest growth ; depending on the skill of the silviculturist and manager to create 
forest wealth. The fact that this natural resource, the soil, can be manipulated 
and converted within limits to suit the needs of a crop is well illustrated by our 
modern successes in agriculture in spite of Thomas Malthus and his theory. 

We can accept with reservation the biochemical calculation of the limits of 
photosynthetic potential on any given acre. Even this assumption requires some 
hedging because sooner or later we will come to the accomplishment of planetary 
engineering (Nourse, I960) — including man-made changes in climatic conditions 
affecting whole regions if not the entire earth. We must, in fact, come to this 
stage of environmental control if we are ever to achieve man's dream of colonizing 
the planets or what may lie in outer space. 

So who can say we have achieved anywhere the ultimate in productivity of 
any species? Who knows what the optimum combination of light energy, tempera- 
ture, water, nutrients, genotype, and silviculture is required to achieve the maxi- 
mum productivity for white pine or red oak or Douglas fir? In controlled artificial 
environments the tomato plant has been made to yield over six times its maximum 
under natural conditions. In California look at the case of Monterey pine, an 
unimpressive producer in its natural range, yet literally exploding in growth 
in a more favorable environment. And again this same species, when lacking a 
handful of available zinc in the soil per acre, becomes another exotic struggling 
for existence on an "unproductive soil." 

If this seems to be indulging in flights of fantasy— way out— beyond the 
realities of forest economics, it is only to emphasize that there is a real challenge 
in forest production ahead. The charge to explore what the soil scientist can do 
in concert with the physiologist, the silviculturist, and the forest manager seems 
best served by offering examples of work now being done by forest soils specialists 

133 



to determine the best natural soil-species combinations, and to assess, whenever 
possible, the soil environment which comes closest to the optimum requirements 
of a particular forest for growth. 

In the years ahead we should, as pointed out by Kellogg (1958) be concentrat- 
ing on the better or more productive sites for forest production. With the con- 
stantly shrinking agricultural land base, at least in this country, there will be 
more and more of the so-called "better" soils available for forestry purposes — 
but how to recognize the better soils for forestry. Certainly these are not always 
the same as the "better" soils for agriculture as has been emphasized by Wilde 
(1958), who points out that in Wisconsin the highly desirable — at least for 
farmers — Miami soils of medium texture support at best 12 M.B.F. of hardwood 
forest at 100 years whereas coarse glacial outwash may produce four times the 
yield of white pine in the same rotation. This type of comparison does, of course, 
violate the ecosystem concept by categorizing good versus poor soils without inte- 
grating all of the regional site factors including mainly the differences in potential 
evapotranspiration in the southern part of the Lake States versus the northern 
part, as well as the differences in the distribution pattern of precipitation. All of 
these do profoundly affect the key to site productivity for forests — available 
water. 

In the discussion which follows no attempt is made to be complete in coverage, 
but to illustrate by example the ways and methods by which soils may be managed 
by foresters. 

SITE CLASSIFICATION AIDS FOREST PRODUCTION 

The oldest and most generally accepted type of soils investigations related to 
forest productivity are those concerned with classifying forest sites in terms of 
productivity or suitability for species establishment. Coile (1952) and those who 
have followed his techniques (Carmean, 1954; Zahner, 1958a) have done a 
great service in devising simple and sometimes single factor correlations of soil 
variables with site potential. This technique, best adapted to pioneer species on 
mature soils with distinct and easily measured soil horizons, has not been too 
successful in the region of glacial soils or immature soils. Others (Deardorff and 
Lloyd 1958; Van Eck and Whiteside, 1958) have tried to use regular or modified 
soil survey designations as an index of productivity for forest growth. This tech- 
nique also has been of limited applicability, of greatest use with modern soil 
maps designated on the basis of deeper profile investigations and in areas of 
relatively homogeneous soils. One key to the successful use of this approach is 
the judicious grouping of soil associations by soil scientists in cooperation with 
foresters into logical divisions based on species requirements. 

Recently, the greater significance of fractions within the sand separate 
(.05-1.0 mm) , particularly the fine (0.1-0.25 mm) and the very fine (.05-0.1 mm), 
sand on the readily available water supply of soils has been emphasized by soil 
scientists. An examination of the relative water supplying power expressed by 
134 



readily available water (water released between 0.06 and 6.0 atmosphere tension) 
is shown in Table 1. 

Table 1: Readily available water holding capacity (between 0.06 and 6.0 
atmosphere tension) in upper 66 inch profile of soils of various texture: (After 
Van Eck and Whiteside, 1958) 

READILY AVAILABLE 
SOIL TYPE WATER-SURFACE INCHES 

Grayling sand 4.0 

Kalkaska sand 5.7 

Coloma loamy sand 9-6 

Hillsdale sandy loam 10-5 

Miami loam 8.9 

This data illustrates that sandy soils with a good proportion of the finer sands 
may be better reservoirs of readily available water than the finer textured soils. 

The influence of fine sands, particularly in depth, has widespread implications 
in the current appraisal of forest sites and most certainly in soil classification 
procedures designed for use by forest managers. Soils frequently lumped together 
based on surface horizons may be vastly different in their potential for forest 
growth. An example of the effective water supplying capacity of sandy soils for 
plantation red pine is shown by the growth of contiguous blocks of forty-four-year 
old red pine on Grayling sand and Rousseau fine sand on the Huron National 
Forest in Michigan. The distribution of sand fractions in these profiles is shown 
in Table 2. 

Of primary interest are the differences between the amounts of fine and very fine 
sand in the substrata of these two soils. What these differences mean in terms of 
additional readily available water and growth is shown in Figure 1. Although both 
plantations have been affected by a long period of slow growth following estab- 
lishment, the effect of 11 surface inches of additional storage capacity for available 
water in the substratum of the Rousseau soil has produced 1.57 feet of annual 
height growth after the establishment period and 41 feet at age 44 as compared 
with 0.81 feet of annual height growth after establishment and 26 feet at age 
44 on the adjoining Grayling sand. This relationship of red pine growth to 
finer materials in subsoil layers is similar to the report of White and Wood (1958) 
on the growth of red pine plantations on coarse outwash sands (Hinckley series) 
on the Pack Forest in the upper Hudson Valley of New York. It also emphasizes 
the importance of soil classification in terms which reflect important differences 
in site for forest growth. 

A further example of the value of correctly interpreting soil-vegetation relation- 
ships comes from the work of Dyrness and Youngburg (1958) on the immature 
pumice soils of central Oregon. On areas mapped as a single soil type (Lapine 
loamy coarse sand), in the absence of discernible differences in profile character- 
istics, four distinct understory vegetation types were recognized, each indicative of 

135 



Table 2: Mechanical analyses of Grayling sand and Rousseau fine sand (as 
percentages of material < 2 mm, ovendry basis) from Van Eck and Whiteside, 
1958. 

GRAYLING SAND 







Fraction 


Horizon 


Depth 
inches 


Fine 


Coarse 


Medium 


Fine 


Very fine 


Silt -h 




gravel 


sand 


sand 


sand 


sand 


clay 






2-1 mm 


1-.5 mm 


• 5-.25 
mm 


.25-. 10 
mm 


.10-.05 
mm 


<.05 mm 


A, 


0-3 


1.3 


39.9 


38.6 


14.3 


2.9 


2.9 


B M 


3-6 


1.7 


48.6 


36.2 


10.9 


1.2 


1.3 


Ba 


6-18 


6.6 


33.3 


38.1 


21.1 


.5 


.3 


G 


18-30 


2.6 


63.8 


26.5 


6.1 


.3 


.1 


G 


30-120 


.5 


34.8 


51.8 


12.1 


.6 


.1 



ROUSSEAU FINE SAND 



Ai, A2 


0-3 


.2 


6.8 


31.3 


50.1 


10.2 


1.4 


B22 


3-10 


.2 


6.5 


29.0 


50.9 


10.5 


2.9 


B 3 


10-22 


.2 


6.3 


29.9 


52.6 


9.6 


1.3 


G 


22-46 


.0 


1.3 


22.0 


67.0 


8.8 


1.0 


G 


46-90 


.0 


.1 


1.9 


55.3 


37.2 


5.5 


G 


90-150 


.0 


1.0 


2.1 


67.5 


27.2 


2.1 



a completely different effective environment and accompanied by changes in 
amounts of advanced timber regeneration, timber stand density, supplies of forage 
available for livestock and other characteristics important in forest and range 
management. Figure 2 shows grown mature ponderosa pine with understory of 
bitterbrush and sparse advance reproduction on the Lapine soil. Total nitrogen 
in the pumice profile varies from 1500 to 1600 pounds per acre. In contrast, 
(Figure 3) a denser stand of mature ponderosa pine with abundant advance re- 
production, and understory of snowbrush (Ceanotbus sp.) manzanita and bitter- 
brush on the same soil mapping unit. The major site difference occurs here because 
nodules on the roots of the snowbrush fix atmospheric nitrogen. The total nitrogen 
in the pumice profile on this type varies from 2000 to 2100 pounds per acre. 

ADJUSTING SPECIES SELECTION TO SITE POTENTIAL 

There is no doubt that we can and should be doing a better job in getting 
the right species on the right site. At the moment we are faced with thousands 
of acres of pioneer species which will never produce more than pulpwood sizes 
on sites that could be growing sawlogs. This is a monument to the reforestation 
policy which was based mainly on "we planted what was available from the 
nursery." 

136 



We are fortunate to have in this country a few species, namely, white pine, 
loblolly pine, and Douglas fir, which have the real capability of exploiting the 
productivity of a site. In other words, they do not terminate their period of rapid 
growth about the time they are approaching sawlog size (ten to twelve inches) . It 
is the species that continue to grow well after they have exceeded this diameter 
that can, with management, put "sawlog silviculture" in a favorable light. 3 An 
example of the tremendous potential of one of these species, white pine, was 
reported by Yawney and Trimble (1958) who described a remarkable plantation 
on a favorable site in West Virginia which at twenty-five years of age had trees 
sixty-five to seventy feet tall and of sawtimber size. 

If we are to meet the challenge of forest production, let us define the sites 
where these prime producers can exploit the site potential and let them go to work. 

CAN WE INCREASE THE SUPPLY OF AVAILABLE WATER 

It has been mentioned previously and reported elsewhere (White, 1958) that 
available water in the soil is the key to forest production and also to the evaluation 
of forest sites. In fact, most of our reasonably successful site classification systems 
are, in effect, delineating soil site characteristics which are directly related to the 
site's ability to hold and supply available water in sufficient quantities for growth. 

Other than taking this factor into consideration when we classify sites, what 
can we do about it? Examples of successful attempts to alter the water regime 
are the large-scale forest drainage projects in the Scandinavian countries which 
may stimulate a renewal of similar projects in the Lake States region of this 
country. Figure 4 shows slow-growing Scotch pine with a growth rate of about 
0.1 cords per acre per year on shallow peat over sandy loam with a high water 
table restricting root development and site productivity. Drainage ditches like 
the one shown in the figure, spaced about 80 meters apart lower the water table 
eight to twelve inches, and can boost stand production to 0.5 cords per acre 
per year. 

Water conservation on well-drained soils has been investigated by Zahner, 4 
who measured the effect of removing portions of the stand and also ground 
cover vegetation on the available water supply remaining for the crop trees. 
Figure 5 shows the effect of thinning pulpwood-sized pine stands on soil moisture 
depletion trends for the first three years after treatment. Figure 6 shows the 
influence of killing hardwood overstory on the growth of underplanted pine 
and the marked difference in soil moisture in the upper six inches during the 
critical summer months during the two conditions as compared with open bare 
ground planting. Effects such as these can be achieved with the proper use of 
herbicides (Arend and Roe, 1961). 

Speaking of herbicides, a recent development of a soil applied selective material 
— simazine 5 has made possible a real breakthrough in the control of weed competi- 



3 S. O. Heiberg, Personal communication. 

4 Personal communication. 

5 2-chloro-4, 6-bis (ethylamino)-s-triazine 



137 



tion in coniferous plantations. This material which remains in the upper few 
inches of soil is assimilated almost entirely through the root system and inhibits 
the formation of the chlorophyll molecule, resulting in the death of most germinat- 
ing weed seeds. Fortunately most conifers and many hardwoods exhibit a high 
degree of resistance to the effects of this chemical at levels lethal to germinating 
grasses and forbs. The mechanism of resistance by tree species is not fully under- 
stood and may be related to the mycorrhizal relationship. Used alone or in com- 
bination with other herbicides, simazine can be used in many types of forest 
plantings to produce increased survival and growth with resulting economic 
advantages (White, I960). Figure 7 shows the effective weed control achieved 
at the end of the first growing season in a white spruce plantation by the applica- 
tion of four pounds per acre of active simazine applied in a two-foot-wide band 
immediately following furrow planting. 

In another study just off the press, Walker, Green, and Daniels (1961) showed 
the effects of raising and lowering the water table on the survival and growth 
of slash and loblolly pine seedlings. These tests clearly indicated the superior 
ability of loblolly pine to withstand periods of inundation and serve as a guide 
in the establishment of pine plantations on waterlogged soils and soils subject 
to periodic inundation. 

Stone et al. (1958) defined the important relationship between the productivity 
of red pine and soil drainage classes from poor to excessive. The strong correla- 
tion between site index and soil drainage class in New York plantations is 
illustrated in Figure 8. This clear-cut delineation of limiting conditions of soil 
drainage for red pine is a very helpful indicator of potential site hazard for 
forest managers. What happens to the root system of normally deep-rooted red 
pine on poorly drained soils is shown in Figure 9. It should be pointed out, 
however, that these findings which are most strongly expressed on medium- 
textured soils do not necessarily indicate as severe a hazard in other areas within 
the natural range of red pine. For example in the Lake States region generally 
coarser soil materials somewhat modify the effect of impeded drainage and 
shorten the period of influence during any particular growing season. 

Although we can eliminate a certain amount of excessive water use by judicious 
elimination of parts of stands and competing weed and understory vegetation, 
the application of additional increments of water through irrigation (Zahner, 
1958b; Stout, 1959) seems beyond the capabilities of the forest manager. This 
does not preclude, of course, the application of irrigation water for physiological 
studies, growth of seed orchards, and specialized plantings, like windbreaks. 
Then there is always the possibility that we may make rapid strides in the planetary 
engineering mentioned earlier when irrigating forests may be as commonplace 
as irrigating orchard crops. 

One attempt to improve the water relations of coarse sandy soils now under 
investigation at the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station is the placement 
of thin bands of bentonite clay (i/ 16 inch) or layers of thin (2 mil) polyethylene 
plastic about twenty-two inches below the surface. This technique has the effect 
138 



of limiting excessive water losses in soils lacking natural development of finer- 
textured materials in the subsoil. It may be an effective treatment in forest nursery 
practice or in such specialized areas as highway borrow pit plantings. Any influ- 
ence of this technique on forest production in the future is still in the realm of 
dreaming. Details of the plastic film-laying machinery are shown in Figure 10. 

ADJUSTMENT OF SOIL FERTILITY 

The post-war forestry literature has been characterized by a large number of 
papers related to the problems of forest fertilization as well as to the more basic 
studies on tree nutrition (White and Leaf, 1957; Leyton, 1958; Stoeckeler and 
Arneman, I960; and others). The use of soil amendments to stimulate forest 
growth has achieved outstanding success on areas of nutrient deficient soils such 
as the response of Scotch pine to phosphorus on a Scottish moor shown in Figure 
11 and the well known dramatic response of Monterey pine to small additions 
of zinc in New Zeeland. In these situations the use of soil amendments is an 
actual requirement for establishment and maintenance of forest trees. In Germany 
Briming (1959) has reported on the successful use of potassium and magnesium 
soil amendments for successful establishment and growth of Scotch pine and black 
locust. In America many workers have shown significant increase in growth over 
short periods (Gessel and Shareff, 1957; Maki, 1958; and others). The localized 
potash deficient soils in the northeast have shown long term effects to single 
potash applications with red pine, white pine, Norway spruce, and white 
spruce (Heiberg and White, 1951; LaFond, 1958). By and large the practical 
use of soil amendments in American forestry is still a technique for special 
situations such as plantation establishment (in conjunction with weed control), 
severely depleted soils, shelterbelts, seed orchards, dune sands, eroded sites, high- 
way borrow pits, and spoil banks. In these situations using pelletized materials 
or slowly available sources, which can provide supplemental nutrition over a 
period of years from a single application, we can expect to achieve substantial 
benefits from fertilization. 

One exception to the limited use of fertilizer is the Christmas tree industry 
where the large, short rotation yields can show high economic returns from 
modest investments in fertilizer. In fact, this practice is generally recommended 
for the more demanding species such as spruce, Douglas fir, and white pine 
intended for Christmas trees. An example of the highly successful use of fertilizer 
to bring a checked fourteen-year old white spruce plantation in Wisconsin, 
originally intended for pulp wood but "off site" on a coarse outwash sand, to 
profitable utilization for Christmas trees is shown in Figure 12. A company policy 
decision to liquidate this stand and convert to a less demanding species prompted 
an attempt to recoup some loss from the original investment. Portions of the 
stand were treated in the spring of I960 with from one-half to two pounds per 
tree of a complete (12-12-12) fertilizer, distributing the material under the tree 
crowns. Foliage and growth response in the subsequent growing season were 
dramatic and resulted in such improvement in growth and quality that a contract 

139 



was completed to liquidate eight acres of the plantation for Christmas trees over 
a three year period at a substantial profit. In this case, the cost of labor, material 
and fertilizer application amounted to 6.5 cents per tree and subsequent shearing 
and shaping costs of 8 cents per tree. 

In considering the ways in which manipulating the soil fertility may increase 
forest production we cannot overlook the forest nursery and the impact of the 
nursery environment on the plantations that will be produced from the nursery 
stock. Much of the credit for the development of rational nursery soil fertility 
management programs in the United States must go to Wilde (1958) who 
pioneered the application of sound soil science principles in forestry. 

Some years ago Wakeley (1948) stressed the importance of "physiological 
grades" of nursery stock. His work followed by that of May (1958) and Switzer 6 
clearly shows that the balance of fertility in the nursery environment can affect 
plantation growth for some years after establishment. An example from the 
Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station shows that nitrogen content of 
loblolly pine raised at various levels in the nursery is closely correlated with growth 
for at least six years after planting. Figure 13 shows different physiological 
grades of loblolly pine growing in research plots in Mississippi. 

SPECIAL PROBLEM AREAS 

As a result of strip mining activities in various parts of the country, especially 
in the central states and in Minnesota, rather large areas of formerly productive 
forest land have been at least temporarily destroyed. Although the removal of 
these lands from production has not seriously affected the supply of forest or 
agricultural products, their successful rehabilitation is, nevertheless, a challenge 
for the future and certainly their rehabilitation conforms with the multiple use 
concept of modern American forestry. An example of successful rehabilitation 
of coal spoil banks with good forest growth of red and white pine is shown in 
Figure 14. It should be explained that the plantation shown was established 
before regulations required grading and treatment of spoil banks. Modern tech- 
niques, including fertilization, will achieve greater productivity over a large per- 
centage of similar areas, some of which are still currently in a waste condition 
and an eyesore. 

SUMMARY 

We have in this brief period attempted to look into the future and evaluate 
present practices in manipulating or classifying soils to achieve greater productivity 
on forest lands. 

Presently the most progress is being made in more meaningful methods of soil 
classification and mapping as guides to plantation establishment and forest 
management. 

Methods for making the most use of available water or providing more water 
for crop trees by the elimination of unwanted vegetation have been reviewed. 

6 Unpublished data. 

140 



Benefits to be achieved from the removal of excess water by drainage have also 
been illustrated. 

Attempts to adjust productivity by the use of soil amendments have been shown 
and the areas most suitable for successful use of this technique have been indicated. 

The increased production that may be achieved from a better understanding of 
soils and judicious manipulation of soil properties have been demonstrated by 
forest soils specialists. It is up to the silviculturist and the forest manager to 
decide where he can economically make use of the techniques successfully demon- 
strated by research. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Arend, J. L. and E. I. Roe. 1961. Releasing conifers in the Lake States with 

chemicals. U. S. Dept. Agri., Agr. Handbook No. 185. 22 pp. 
Briining, D. 1959. Forstdungung. Neumann Verlag. Leipzig. 210 pp. 
Carmean, W. H. 1954. Site quality for Douglas-fir in Southwestern Washington 

and its relationship to precipitation, evaluation, and physical soil properties. 

Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 18: 330-334. 
Coile, T. S. 1952. Soil and the growth of forests. Adv. in Agron. IV: 329-398. 
Deardorff, C. E. and W. J. Lloyd. 1958. Interpreting soil surveys for use in 

growing wood crops. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. First N. Amer. For. Soils Conf. 

Proc: 213-217. 
Dryness, C. T. and C. T. Youngberg. 1958. Soil-vegetation relationships in the 

central Oregon pumice region. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. First N. Amer. For. 

Soils Conf. Proc: 57-66. 
Gessel, S. P. and A. Shareff. 1957. Response of 30-year old Douglas-fir to 

fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc Amer. Proc. 20: 97-100. 
Heiberg, S. O. and D. P. White. 1951. Potassium deficiency of reforested pine 

and spruce stands in northern New York. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 15: 

369-376. 
Hills, G. A. I960. Regional site research. For. Chron. 36: 401-423. 
Kellogg, C. E. 1958. A look at future forest soil problems. Mich. Agr. Exp. 

Sta. First N. Amer. For. Soils Conf. Proc: 1-5. 
Kozlowski, T. T. I960. Some problems in use of herbicides in forestry. 17th N. 

Cent. Weed Control Conf., Milw., Wis. 43 pp. 
LaFond, A. 1958. Les deficiences en potassium et magnesiums de quelques plan- 
tations de Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa et Picea glauca dan la province de 

Quebec. Contrib. No. 1, Laval Univ. For. Res. Found., Quebec. 
Leyton, L. 1957. The mineral nutrition of forest trees. In: Handbuch der 

Pflanzenphysiologie, Band IV, Springer- Verlag, Berlin. 
Leyton, L. 1958. The relationship between the growth and mineral nutrition of 

conifers. In: The physiology of forest trees, pp. 323-345. Ronald Press, 

New York. 
Maki, T. E. 1958. Forest fertilization possibilities in the United States. Better 

Crops 42(8): 16-25. 

141 



May, J. T. 1958. Soil management in southern pine nurseries. Mich. Agr. Exp. 

Sta. First N. Amer. For. Soils Conf. Proc: 141-146. 
Nourse, A. E. I960. Nine planets. Harper & Brothers, New York. 295 pp. 
Ovington, J. D. I960. The ecosystem concept as an aid to forest classification. 

Silva Fennica 105: 73-76. 
Stoeckeler, J. H. and H. F. Arneman. I960. Fertilizers in forestry. Adv. in 

Agron. Vol. 12: 127-195. 
Stone, E. L., G. Taylor, N. Richards, and J. Dement. 1958. Soils and species 

adaptation: red pine plantations in New York. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. First 

N. Amer. For. Soils Conf. Proc: 181-184. 
Stout, B. B. 1959. Supplemental irrigation of 7 5 -year old hardwoods. Harvard 

Black Rock Forest Paper No. 25. 6 pp. 
Van Eck, W. A. and E. P. Whiteside. 1958. Soil classification as a tool in pre- 
dicting forest growth. Mich Agr. Exp. Sta. First N. Amer. For. Soils Conf. 

Proc: 218-226. 
Wakeley, P. C. 1948. Physiological grades of southern pine nursery stock. 

Soc. Amer. For. Proc 43: 311-322. 
Walker, L. C, R. L. Green, and J. M. Daniels. 1961. Flooding and drainage 

effects on slash pine and loblolly pine seedlings. For. Sci. 7: 2-15. 
White, D. P. 1958. Available water: The key to forest site evaluation. Mich. 

Agr. Exp. Sta. First N. Amer. For. Soils Conf. Proc: 6-11. 
White, D. P. I960. Effect of fertilization and weed control on survival and 

early growth of spruce plantations. VII Int. Congr. Soil Sci. Proc: 

Madison, Wis. 
White, D. P. and A. L. Leaf. 1957. Forest fertilization — a bibliography, with 

abstracts, on the use of fertilizers and soil amendments in forestry. State 

Univ. N. Y. Coll. For., World For. Bui. 2. 305 pp. 
White, D. P. and R. S. Wood. 1958. Growth variations in a red pine plantation 

influenced by a deep-lying fine soil layer. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 22: 

174-177. 
Wilde, S. A. 1958. Forest soils. Ronald Press Co. New York. 537 pp. 
Yawney, H. W. and G. R. Trimble, Jr. 1958. West Virginia's unusual pine 

plantation. /. For. 56: 849-851. 
Zahner, R. 1958a. Site quality relationships of pine forests in South Arkansas 

and north Louisiana. For. Sci. 4: 162-176. 
Zahner, R. 1958b. Controlled soil-moisture experiments in forest tree- water 

relations. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta. First N. Amer. For. Soil Conf. Proc: 

12-19. 



142 



■H ?»a 



100 
80 
60 

Uo 

20 




Rousseau 
fine sand 



Grayling 
sand 



10 12 Depth (ft.) 



M 

•H 



Uo ■ 




Jh 




Jh 


32 


2 T5 

03 £ 


! -p 




-P 


2lt 


(D ro 


•H T5 
H fl 


16 

8 


o C 
P^ -H 




oo 
O 




™*^^ 


i S ! 





Fig. 1. — Influence of fine sand fractions in C horizon on relative available water storage 
and growth of red pine on Rousseau and Grayling soils. Huron National Forest, Michigan. 
(After Van Eck and Whiteside, 1958.) 




Fig. 2. — Open grown mature stand of ponderosa pine with understory of bitterbrush and 
sparse advanced reproduction on Lapine loamy coarse sand. Total nitrogen in pumice profile 
varies from 1500-1600 lbs/acre. (Dyrness and Youngberg, 1958.) 




* * i r . 



1 ■■•! 

■ - * - - 1 



Miff! 



Jrc4|W 




Fig. 3. — Dense stand of mature ponderosa pine with abundant advance reproduction and 
understory of nitrogen fixing snowbrush (Ceanothus sp.) on Lapine loamy coarse sand. 
Total nitrogen in pumice profile varies from 2000 to 2100 lbs/acre. (Dyrness and Young- 
berg, 1958.) 




Fig. 4. — Drainage of shallow peat over sandy loam in Finland to increase growth of Scotch 
pine. Ditches spaced at 80 meters drop water table 8-12 inches and result in annual production 
increase from 0.1 to 0.5 cords per acre. (Courtesy, J. H. Stoeckeler, U.S. Forest Service.) 



FC 



q: 



W.P 




1ST 



YR 



v(y : ^^ ■ -.2NDYR. 

SN ^//VfV£D[^- -3RD YR. 

i_ t , 7 " 



MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP 

Fig 5.— Effect of thinning young stands on soil moisture depletion during growth season. 
F.C.— field capacity, W.P— wilting point. (Courtesy, R. Zahner, University of Michigan.) 

UNDERPLANTED & DEAD ENED 



FIELD 
CAPACITY 



WILTING 
POINT 



AIR DRY 




X UNDERPLANTED 

\ ^^_ Bl^^OJ_pEADE_NE_D 

s 

N. 

>^%m_gD__^E GROUND 

1 1 1 ^^ 



MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP 

— DRYING OF SURFACE SIX INCHES— 

Fig. 6. — Effect of deadening overstory on growing season available water for underplanted 
pine. (Courtesy, R. Zahner, University of Michigan.) 















mm • 

Fig. 7. — Control of weeds in white spruce plantation with 4 lbs/acre of active simazine 
applied in two-foot band over furrow after planting. Photo: end of first growing season 
(White, I960). 




50 



40 



S 30 

c 



V) 



20 



10 U 




Including all drainags classes: 

$ - -13.09 + 27.615 - 3.125X 2 
b 2 



2 3^56 

Brainagp Class (x) 

Fig. 8. — Relationship of site index of red pine to soil drainage in New 
York (Stone, et al., 1958). 




Fig. 9. — Root of red pine growing on poorly drained soil. Note truncated root system 
(Stone, etal., 1958). 




it! 



mm^ 






Fig. 10. — Placement of thin plastic film in coarse sandy soil creates artificial barrier 
against excessive loss of percolating water. Polyethylene film (2 mil) increases storage of 
readily available water in upper 22 inches of soil. Trench is excavated in photo to show 
detail. (Courtesy, A. E. Erickson, Michigan State University.) 




Fig. 11. — Response of Scotch pine on Lon Mar, Scotland, to applications of phosphorus 
as basic slag. Left, control; right, basic slag, 5 cwt/acre in 1928 and 1930. Planted 1926, 
photo 1958. (Courtesy, L. Leyton, Oxford University.) 



$sws^ 




Fig. 12a and b — Response of 14-year-old white spruce on coarse sand to heavy application 
of complete fertilizer. 12a — untreated. 12b — treated spring I960 with 1 lb. 12-12-12 per 
tree broadcast under crown. Photos August, I960. (Rhinelander Paper Company, Wisconsin.) 




Fig. 13. — Loblolly pine seedlings raised under controlled levels of fertility for field tests 
of physiological grade. (Courtesy, G. Switzer, Mississippi State University.) 





Fig. 14. — Rehabilitation of spoil banks left after strip mining by red and white pine 
(Courtesy, O. D. Diller, Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station.) 



Management Considerations 

Theodore W. Earle 

Vice President 
Continental Can Company, Inc. 



Our country's strength and world position is based on an abundant supply of 
natural resources. Without this supply of natural wealth, our past technological 
advances would not have been possible. Of our many resources, only timber 
can be replenished in a reasonably short period. It may take centuries to re- 
establish a water source, eons for oil and coal. As our un-renewable resources 
are depleted, we are going to depend more and more on timber for the basic 
raw materials required to support our way of life. Under present economic con- 
ditions, there are 529,000,000 acres of land capable of growing commercial 
timber crops in the United States — including Hawaii and Alaska. The remaining 
255,000,000 acres of forest land are in dedicated wilderness areas, in inaccessible 
locations, or land that will not support commercial timber species. 

This available acreage is now providing the more than 5,000 wood products 
we use in our every day life. Will it be able to continue to meet the demand of a 
growing nation and world? The Forest Service, in its Timber Resources Review, 
predicts that between now and 2000 A.D. more than 123 million acres could 
be diverted to agricultural use, rights of way, urban sprawl, and others. This 
represents a loss of 25 per cent of our timber growing capacity. 

What about consumption during this same period? During the past twenty 
years, our per capita use of lumber has remained constant. At the same time, our 
per capita consumption of paper and paperboard has nearly doubled. Let us 
assume the current per capita consumption levels remain constant for the next 
forty years. This is certainly conservative in light of the expanding use of ply- 
wood, poles, piling, fiber and chemical products derived from wood. Our ex- 
ploding population alone, from 180 million now, to 300 million at the turn 
of the century, will increase the demand for forest products to 170 per cent of 
its present level. 

In light of this 25 per cent reduction in production potential, and 170 per cent 
increase in demand, the need for intensified forest management on the remaining 
acreage becomes obvious. Before we develop this discussion further, it behooves 
each of us to have the same definition of Forest Management in mind. Just what 
is forest management? The Society of American Foresters defines it as, "The 
application of business methods and technical forestry to the operation of the 
forest property." A forest ownership is an investment like any other. It is para- 
mount that current or periodic income will exceed expenses, and that the owner- 
ship objectives of the investor be accomplished. 

Profit potential — the degree to which income will exceed expenses, and the 
techniques suitable for use in producing this profit, vary widely with the con- 

143 



dition of the land, management objectives, and sizes of the ownership. The forest 
industries, on a nation-wide basis, are making great strides in developing "mass 
production" techniques for managing forest land. These methods are economically- 
feasible only because of the rapidly increasing demand for forest products and 
the resulting urgency to attain full stocking as fast as possible. In many cases the 
large capital outlay required to carry out these programs prohibits their use on 
small forest ownerships. The older, simpler silvicultural systems must be used. 
Before any system can be successfully applied, however, the small land owner 
must be convinced that there are financial benefits to be derived from good forest 
management. Herein lies a great challenge to the entire forestry profession. 
If we are going to meet the production demands of the future, every acre of forest 
land must be in production, not only the large industrial holdings and the 
Federal ownerships. 

The Forest Industry has recognized this problem. Through cooperative efforts 
such as the American Forest Products Industries Tree Farm program, the Southern 
Pulpwood Conservation Association, Forest Farmers Association, and other 
similar organizations, progress is being made "selling" the public good forest 
management. In addition, the individual wood using companies, through on-the- 
ground advice and assistance, are demonstrating, to the small land owners, that 
forest land can be profitable. We still have a long way to go, however. 

The rest of my remarks will be confined to industrial forest management — 
here, where motivation and capital are available, is one of the areas in which 
the challenge to forest managers can, and is, being met. 

For a minute, let us evaluate the Forest Industries present position in forest 
management. A forest ownership evolves through a series of stages in its progress 
toward full forest production and sustained yield on every acre. These might 
be listed as: 

(1) The acquisition phase — cruising, purchasing, surveying, and mapping, 
the land. 

(2) The protection phase — the institution of a fire protection system and the 
development of good public relations, so that the public understands and respects 
the objectives of forest management. 

(3) The organization phase — where the property is organized into adminis- 
tration and management units. 

(4) The development and improvement phase — that period of time during 
which open fields and unstocked lands are planted, and basic road and other 
improvement construction takes place. 

(5) The production and regulation phase — when overmature and otherwise 
undesirable stands are cut, and overall efforts are directed toward improving 
timber quality, quantity, and age class distribution. 

(6) The continuous yield phase — during which the administrative areas are 
organized into production units, and detailed plans of cutting and treatment 
are prepared. 

(7) The final stage — maximum sustained yield. 

144 



Over much of the South the forest industries have passed through the acqui- 
sition, protection, organization, and development phases and are now at the pro- 
duction and regulation phase. It is at this point, and in the ensuing stages, that 
the greatest need for advanced technology, both business and scientific, is 
required. Because I am most familiar with my company's operation, and also 
because it provides an outstanding example of rapid development — of course, 
I might be a little prejudiced — my remarks for the next several minutes will be 
confined to Continental Can Company's Woodlands Division. 

We own, or execute direct management control over, slightly more than 
1,300,000 acres of forest land in seven (7) Southern States. These range from 
Virginia along the coast through North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
and across the Mississippi in Louisiana and Arkansas. This land was placed under 
management as soon as we purchased it. It is divided into four (4) separate 
250,000 to 300,000 acre districts, each of which supports a Kraft or bleachkraft 
paper mill. Each district is under the supervision of a forester, whose title is 
District Woodlands Manager. The district is divided into administrative areas, 
ranging in size from 25,000 to 65,000 acres, for ease of management and control. 
Each area has a Technical Forester in charge, who reports directly to the District 
Manager. This Area Forester may have one or two assistants, depending on the 
size of the area and its work load. The District Manager, in addition to these 
Area Foresters, has men of proven ability on a staff level who provide assistance 
and advice in: Forest Management, Engineering and Development, Wood Pro- 
curement, and Accounting. 

The Area Foresters and their assistants live as close to the center of their 
areas as is practical. These men are completely responsible for all of the opera- 
tions that take place in their areas. This decentralized operation has many 
advantages. Being responsible for both planning and executing the work, each 
area man is actively interested in improving techniques and operating methods. 
Rather than merely carrying out rigid procedures, each man can, and does, have 
an opportunity to bring his own creative ability to bear on the various problems. 
A second factor is that the men, living in the local areas, become associated with, 
and a part of, the community in which our land lies. This helps to establish a 
closer relationship between the company and local people. Our status changes 
from "those pulpwood people" into an identified member of the local society. 
This acceptance creates the atmosphere necessary to carry out an intensive forest 
management operation. 

Our paper mills are predominantly pine consumers at the present time. Because 
of this, our silviculture is directed toward propagating relatively intolerant pine 
species in managed even-aged pure stands. In the early management stages, activi- 
ties such as the complete exclusion of fire, and the partial cutting of pine stands, 
favored the development of hardwood species on many sites. The urgency of 
building an organization, acquiring land, and protecting it from destructive wild 
fires, made the application of systematic studies and management plans imprac- 
tical. Only after these early growing pains were passed, and the production and 

* 145 



regulation phase was reached, could we begin to truly apply intensive forest 
management over our entire forest holdings. We can now organize our activities 
so that the management objectives are approached in an orderly and syste- 
matic manner. 

The first step in this regulatory process is to subdivide each administrative 
area into easily defined management units of approximately 1,000 acres each. 
These units, or compartments, form the basic planning, execution and record 
keeping entity. 

The compartments are then combined into five cutting cycle groups. Each 
year, one of these groups, of from four to twelve compartments, is examined and 
treated, so that every acre is gone over and given any attention needed once 
every five years. When this framework is constructed, the efforts of our personnel 
are no longer "shotgunned" over the entire holdings, but are concentrated on a 
definite one-fifth of the area each year. 

In actual practice, our procedure is to examine and classify, according to a 
series of coded forest conditions, one of these cutting groups each year. These 
codes describe the forest type, soil site class, topography, age, size, and stocking 
of each stand within the group. In addition, the examining forester includes a 
coded silvicultural recommendation. 

The summary of these recommendations, which include an estimated volume 
to be cut from each stand, form the basis for next year's operations. Following 
the examination of next year's cutting group, and within the framework of a 
tentative cutting budget developed at district level, the Area Forester prepares a 
detailed work plan for his area. These plans are submitted to the district staffs, 
where they are weighed in relation to the plans and recommendations from other 
areas. The final district work plan is then submitted to the division office in the 
form of an annual budget where it is again evaluated and finally approved or 
modified. 

The tentative budget, developed for the Area Forester's guidance, is based 
on information gained from our continuous forest inventory. This continuous 
forest inventory is based on the re-measurement, at five year intervals, of randomly 
located, permanent, one-fifth acre plots. The statistical error incurred when apply- 
ing the inventory data at district level is insignificant. This data serves, not only 
as the basis for tentative annual plans for each area, but also as a basis for a 
Five Year District Management Plan and as a source of information for longer 
projections which are sometimes required by our Executive Offices in New York. 

Let's go back now and examine this process in a little more detail. Our objective 
is to attain full pine stocking and maximum production as rapidly and eco- 
nomically as possible, while at the same time, maintaining a more or less uniform 
yield of forest products and dollars. This yield will gradually increase as stocking 
improves. When the forester goes into the field to examine the forest stands, he 
has a large number of factors to consider. Is the stand currently yielding a satis- 
factory rate of return? If it is, can it be increased by some silvicultural treatment? 
If it is not, should it be cut immediately, or are there other stands up for treat- 

146 



rtient which should! carry a higher priority? If the stand is to be cut, what regenera- 
tion system should be used? As demonstrated by Don White's paper, soil site 
capacity plays an important part in this consideration. Over most of our districts, 
we are clear cutting and regenerating by planting, following some form of 
preliminary site treatment. 

Today's forester has a large number of mechanical and chemical tools which 
can be used individually, or in combination, to carry out this regeneration. The 
proper treatment has tremendous effect on both current and future operating 
costs and production. In some cases, a treatment such as piling the cull hardwoods 
with a tractor, and harrowing the site two times, is cheaper in the long run than a 
more moderate initial treatment, which allows excessive hardwood sprout devel- 
opment or poor planting survival. All of our planting stock comes from con- 
trolled seed sources. The cost of maintaining a partially stocked stand in light 
of today's high fixed overhead, such as taxes, employee fringe benefits, etc., is 
prohibitive. Every acre must be made to produce at as near capacity as present 
technology and economics will allow. 

In our effort to increase this per-acre production, a series of independent and 
cooperative research programs are in progress. I would like to mention two of 
these because of their great importance. The first of these is the "Tree Improve- 
ment Program." Here, we are attempting, through the normal techniques of 
plant breeding, to develop a strain of pine trees which demonstrates to a superior 
degree the physiological characteristics deemed most important by the project 
participants. We hope to come up with a plant characterized by high wood 
specific gravity, straightness, small branches, rapid growth, and resistance to 
disease. The approach to this program is two pronged: 

(1) For the immediate future — develop a phenotypically superior source of 
seed through natural seed production areas. In this operation high quality stands 
are very selectively cut so that only 7-10 of the best trees are left per acre. 
These are fertilized, sprayed for insect and cone rust control, and otherwise care- 
fully treated. They serve as the seed source for our present nursery plantings. 

(2) For the long range — to develop a genetically superior strain of trees 
through plant breeding. We are carefully selecting and testing "superior trees" — 
those natural specimens which demonstrate the desired characteristics. These serve 
as parents and provide scions which are grafted on rootstocks in Seed Orchards. 
As these orchard trees begin to bear seed, progeny testing will be done, and 
those individuals which do not actually demonstrate the desired superior qualities 
will be eliminated. 

The second study I would like to mention is in the field of forest pathology. 
One of the greatest single problems in the management of pure pine stands is 
disease. These large, even-aged stands set the stage for disease infestations of 
epidemic proportions. Even endemic or normal levels of such infections as 
Cronartium fusiform, z rust which produces canker in pine, and Fomes annosus, 
a root-rot fungus, are problems of considerable magnitude. In conjunction with 
the Pabst Brewing Company, we are engaged, in the South, in an evaluation of 

147 



two antibiotics similar to penicillin, which have indicated an effectiveness in 
the control of forest diseases, particularly white pine blister rust in the West. 
If these preliminary indications bear up under study in the South, and the anti- 
biotics can be economically used, we will have made a tremendous stride in 
forest management. I seem to have strayed from the original line of thought 
and had better get back to it. 

After the Area Forester has decided what treatments will be required in each 
compartment, he is in a position to determine the type of equipment and hours 
required to treat the land, the personnel requirements for planting, timber stand 
improvement, access road construction, and the various other phases of the opera- 
tion. Once this information is in the hands of the District Manager and his staff, 
they can intelligently determine immediate capital requirements for equipment, 
decide what operating funds will be needed, and ascertain whether the plans are 
compatible with the company's operating and fiscal policies. They also evaluate 
their effect on taxes, income, and the local communities. 

One of the factors often omitted in a discussion of forest management is the 
interrelation of these forest management developments with the operations of 
the crews actually cutting and hauling the wood. No matter how good a man- 
agement technique may look from a forester's standpoint, if it adversely affects 
logging, either it, or the logging methods, must be revised. It is in this par- 
ticular segment of forest management that we in the South, and actually in the 
nation as a whole, are woefully weak. If I were to suggest that a farmer harvest 
and thrash a field of hybrid wheat, using sickle and flails, he would only laugh ; 
and yet in this day of electronic brains and rockets, our logging crews are still 
using procedures only slightly improved from those employed forty years ago. 
In the face of rising labor and transportation costs, we must develop high-speed 
mechanized methods for logging and wood handling or reconcile ourselves to 
steadily increasing raw material prices. Although some improvements have been 
made, and a few studies are in progress, there is still a huge void to be filled. 

We have touched briefly on a few of the problems and practices of today's 
forest managers and indicated that the future problems will become, if anything, 
more complex. How will this affect future personnel requirements? 

There will definitely be a need for trained forestry graduates throughout our 
economy, if the Herculean task of meeting the future demand for forest products 
is to be accomplished. Within the forest industries, specifically, we will need 
men at all levels — field, research, supervisory, and administrative. The technical 
requirements imposed on these men will steadily increase, but at a more rapid 
rate and of more urgent concern, will be the demands on common sense, knowl- 
edge of people and business acumen. 

Our educational institutions are faced with a real dilemma as forestry becomes 
a bigger and bigger business, and foresters are expected, and required, to assume 
higher positions in the organizations for which they work. These positions require 
a broader outlook than can be attained through a strictly technical education. 
Time must be allotted to the Arts and Humanities, if the wide interests of a true 

148 



leader are to be developed; and yet the colleges will be pressed to include new 
technical courses to keep up with rapid technological advances. In this vein, 
I might say that it is rare, indeed, for a man to fail because of technical inability 
once he has achieved a diploma from an accredited school. More likely to spell 
disaster is the lack of initiative, human insight, active curiosity, or the ability 
to get along with people. Some of these are not gifts, but capabilities acquired 
through hard work, study, and guidance. It is essential that our schools provide, 
not only modern technical curriculums, but also the atmosphere and courses re- 
quired to develop these characteristics in their graduates. 

Never should the liberal arts phase of the education process be sacrificed to 
the technical. One of the greatest weaknesses in the forestry profession, has been 
the foresters' inability to meet with, and sell themselves to, men with a variety 
of backgrounds. They have allowed themselves to be catalogued as "woodsmen," 
"nice fellow," but not for use in the front office. Only with capable leaders can 
the forestry profession meet the challenges of our free enterprise system. 

A healthy, vital forest economy, which we will need to meet world competition, 
will require both intensive forest management and capable leadership. "We all 
know that today, a very large percentage of the world's forest resources fall under 
the control of world communism. Russia's accessible forest land includes 2.5 
billion acres, containing 65 per cent of the world's softwood timber. By applying 
intensive research and development, they are said to have gained one of the 
most highly mechanized and efficient logging operations in the world. In 1958 
their lumber production exceeded that of the United States. 

From recent reports, we know that Red China has planted 50 million acres 
to trees and bamboo, and have a goal of 165 million acres by 1965. In this 
economic war, the responsibility of handling our forest resources no longer carries 
domestic connotations only, but has direct effect on our national security. Great 
strides have been made in forest management during the past decade. In light 
of the anticipated growth in population and demand for forest products during 
the "soaring sixties" and after, our efforts must be almost doubled unless we 
are willing to face rationing of our morning newspaper, cartons for shipments, 
and wood for new homes. 

I am confident that the need is recognized, that our schools and universities 
can provide the trained personnel, and that our free enterprise system will rise 
to meet this challenge. 



149 



PART FIVE 

CHALLENGES IN NEW WOOD USES 



Challenges in the Use of Wood 

Howard W. Morgan 

Vice President 
Weyerhaeuser Company 



Challenge is an exciting word. It brings to one's mind the idea of great things 
to be done, hard battles to be won, obstacles to be overcome and new things to 
be learned. The word looks to the future and is most appropriate in thinking 
of how we will profitably use the tremendous quantities of wood being grown 
today in America's forests and on her tree farms, and make no mistake the 
growing of wood as a crop is well established as major business. I for one have 
no fears that this nation will find itself with a serious wood shortage. The only 
requisites are adequate future planning to be sure that sufficient areas of timber 
are grown, and a public understanding of the principles of tree farming that 
provides a tax policy conducive to making provision for the future timber supply. 
Heavy taxes during the growing cycles discourage the holding of adequate re- 
serves of growing stock, whereas taxes geared to full growing cycle encourage 
wise and orderly forestry policies. 

Trees are a crop taking from 25 to 100 years to mature, and an industry 
dependent on wood as a raw material must look far ahead to its future supplies. 
Fortunately, most wood-using industries and large numbers of individuals have 
seen this and, believing in the future, have invested the money and efforts to 
establish forests for future use. The greatest stimulus to this is the profitable 
market that has been available, and as the use of wood grows so will the interest 
in growing wood expand. I take this liberty of straying into the field of forest 
management because uses are so dependent upon well-managed wood supplies, 
and forest management is so dependent upon more and more profitable ways of 
using wood. 

The broad challenge is to use wood to serve the common good through new 
and better products and lower cost commodities that can contribute to the needs 
and well being of the people. This is a challenge of great import to our nation, 
for this country is blessed with large land areas well suited for growing trees, 
though they are not suited or are not needed for growing other crops. If the 
crops of trees that these areas can grow can be used to make needed products 
at a profit, these lands areas will add to the wealth and well being of the nation. 
On the other hand, if there is not a profitable use for the trees, interest in growing 
trees will wane. Don't misunderstand me. I am sure we will always have a large 
use for wood, but the amount can vary widely, depending upon what we do 
about finding the uses and taking advantage of them. The more uses that are 
developed, the more trees that will be grown and the more acres of forest land 
put to profitable use. In the end, profit or the hope of it is the only motive that 

153 



will bring the operations of tree farming and the wood-using industries into 
full effectiveness. Profit, however, is a small part of the contribution to the 
nation. A far greater contribution is the opportunity that such integrated forest 
management and manufacturing enterprises offer for satisfying and remunerative 
careers for many thousands of people. We all know that opportunity for gainful 
employment is the basis of a sound and growing economy. In this country the 
best available figures indicate a total employment in the forest industries of 
1,200,000 people, or 7.5 per cent of the total employment in manufacturing. 
The Bureau of Labor Statistics' figures indicate that the combined lumber and 
paper industries rank sixth in the number of people employed in the list of 
twenty-one industry classifications. 

How is the broad challenge of wood use to be met? How can we grasp the 
opportunities that exist? All successful businesses involve three main lines of 
endeavor: product development, which frequently involves research: manufactur- 
ing and marketing. The last is the most important in most cases. 

Marketing as used here includes not only selling and distribution, but more 
importantly, study of the needs of the consuming public. The objective of needs 
to be filled lend direction to the development and perfection of new products. 
Many great achievements have been accomplished by people who saw important 
human needs and then went to work to fill them. 

I believe it is correct to say that the great success of Henry Ford was not due 
to his engineering and manufacturing skill, great as that was, but rather to his 
conviction that the American public needed a good, serviceable car that sold 
for less than $500. That is what he set out to do, and did, with his famous 
Model T. He recognized a market and he organized an industry to satisfy that 
market, at a price it was willing to pay. His success was one of the greatest in 
American industry. 

Our challenges today are not much different. When we can find the important 
needs of our times and can meet them with products at an acceptable price, 
we have success. 

Price is an ever important factor and one that frequently plagues the wood- 
using industries because of the competition of many other materials. The future 
size of these forest industries depends to a large degree upon providing our 
products at equal or lower cost than the competing products. Cost is the major 
challenge of manufacturing, and these industries are fully aware of it. No factor 
receives greater attention in the operation of the modern wood-using plants. 

If progress in manufacturing methods is not continually made, increasing wages, 
taxes, and other costs could price our products out of the market. Some important 
accomplishments have been made. Today lumber prices are no higher than they 
were five years ago. The most important cost reductions in the postwar years 
have been achieved through integrated manufacture of lumber, wood pulp, and 
other products. Sawmill waste had been used in small quantities for the pro- 
duction of unbleached paper and paperboard for many years in the Northwest, 
but it was not until the late 1930's that bleaching methods were developed which 

154 



allowed the use of Douglas-fir for bleached pulps of good quality. World War II 
sidetracked this development; but following this, the industry quickly put this 
development to work to meet the rapidly increasing demand. I am sure that in 
the Pacific Northwest today more chemical wood pulp is made from logging 
and sawmill wastes than from whole logs or cordwood. This integration applies 
to the small sawmill as well as the large, for barking and chipping equipment is 
added to a small mill and the resulting chips sold to a pulp mill, and most 
of the smaller sawmills in Washington and Oregon are so equipped. The impor- 
tance of this integration can be illustrated by the fact that the return for the 
chips is often as large or larger than the profit of the whole operation. More 
of this type of development is badly needed to meet the economic conditions 
that wood-using industries face. More profitable uses for sawdust and bark, which 
are now largely used only for fuel, and the discovery of more profitable conversion 
of used pulp mill cooking liquor could give a real lift to the economic improve- 
ment of these industries. 

Wood, which is our most adaptable building material, has for years faced the 
active competition of many other materials. Metals, concrete, glass, and a wide 
variety of compositions have been aggressively marketed and have replaced wood 
to a considerable extent for some building uses. As an example, composition 
shingles have replaced a majority of the wood shingles. Metals have made sizable 
inroads in the use of wood for window and door frames. The Wall Street Journal 
just three weeks ago published a front-page feature article, headlined "Materials 
Melee — New Steel, Concrete, Glass Products Step Up Construction Rivalry — 
Aluminum Firms Seek More Home-Siding Sales; Plastic Floors Battle Hard- 
wood." Cost, and in some cases, performance, has been a factor causing some of 
these changes. Not to be ignored is the novelty and flexibility that new materials 
have given architects in the development of new concepts of design and con- 
struction. While lumber has lost in some items of building, it has maintained a 
pre-eminent position almost undisputed in framing for home construction and 
many other lumber uses have been taken over by plywood and other wood products. 
The application of research to the use of wood products in building has not 
had the attention it deserves. This type of study, coupled with experimental 
design, will give great aid to wood in meeting the needs of the times. Such 
research would involve engineering and architectural studies. The Douglas Fir 
Plywood Association has contributed much to that industry through this type of 
approach. The lumber industry now shows interest in the same type of approach. 
Organizations such as the Building Research Institute, the National Association 
of Home Builders, the University of Illinois Small Homes Council, the Forest 
Products Research Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, are all working in this 
field. We at Weyerhaeuser have a new research facility in Seattle, Washington, 
which directs its efforts to make more use of forest-derived products and materials 
in building and construction. , 

Architecture like other arts is ever seeking something new, a better func- 
tional design, a more attractive form, or sometimes just something different. 

155 



The lumber industry has been slow to follow architectural trends, and our greatest 
challenge in marketing wood products to the building industry lies in adapting 
wood to the designs of today and of tomorrow. Fortunately, much has been done 
in recent years and is being done now. Plywood's adaptability is continually 
expanding its use. Various types of hardboard and particle board find increased 
application. Engineering developments such as prefabricated roof trusses and 
wall sections are introducing both labor and material savings. The techniques 
of laminating wood have been greatly improved in recent years. Laminated beams 
and arches of many sizes and shapes are giving wood new dimension, utility, 
and beauty . . . from barns and warehouse to homes, churches, and schools. Panel 
laminates from structural plywood to beautiful hardwood-faced interior panelling 
are forms of wood already well established and continuing to expand in use. 
Large laminated beams and prefabricated roof trusses are produced at a cost 
which competes with steel for the framing of large buildings and give an appear- 
ance that is vastly superior. Short pieces of narrow boards are now glued with 
waterproof adhesives to make panels of good appearance and great utility. The 
factory prefabrication of house-building units is providing a real advance in 
lowering the cost of building. Like Henry Ford and his automobile, the success 
of the large home-building corporations has been due to the same ability to sense 
the needs of the market and devise methods of producing and financing a home 
at a price that a large number of users will pay. It can be predicted that factory 
efficiency can be applied to the structural work for house designs using wood at 
substantial savings, and that the more expensive on-site work can be limited 
to assembling and applying the exterior and interior finishes which can be varied 
to suit the taste of the buyer, resulting in lower cost homes. 

Wood in the form of framing lumber is the ideal material from which to build 
the units of construction. Plywood, hardboard, particle board, wood-fiber insulat- 
ing, all can find wide application in completing the structure. There is a real 
challenge in adapting wood products now available to architectural ideas of the 
age and in bringing to the attention of the architectural and building people 
the new things in wood that allow the development of new forms and designs in 
architecture. The use of lumber probably has suffered, because many architects 
and builders think of it only in traditional uses — as beams, framing and boards. 
If the present advanced architectural thinking can again be focused on wood and 
the adaptable forms in which it can now be manufactured, wood products will 
enjoy an even larger share of the construction market. 

Since research is mentioned throughout this talk, it may be well to make some 
specific comments regarding it at this point. We cannot talk about future progress 
in the industry and new uses for wood without thinking of research and its 
place in these matters. Naturally, a businessman hesitates to speak too boldly 
on research in the university atmosphere, which is so saturated with advanced 
thinking in these endeavors; nevertheless, it is a subject that should be talked 
about and one on which many businessmen could profit by a more realistic 
understanding of its possibilities and limitations. Too often we are inclined 

156 



to feel that all that is necessary is to build a laboratory, hire the scientists, give 
them a budget, and then the highly profitable discoveries will flow in. This result 
does not happen unless the research activity is directed to fertile fields of investi- 
gations, and it takes sound management planning to channel the research activity 
toward markets and products that are of commercial value, and to see that the 
results of the research are carried through to successful commercialization. Man- 
agement has a major responsibility in planning research and in using the 
results of it. 

The word research has become somewhat abused, since it has become so popular, 
and a definitive meaning is important. By research I mean a systematic, intensive 
study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge of a subject. It includes both 
fundamental research and applied research, which differ depending upon their 
objectives. 

Both are important and the first often more important than the latter, for it 
develops the knowledge on which the latter draws. Any company which has a 
sizable research program should allocate some of its most able scientists to funda- 
mental work with the instruction that they find out more about a given field 
without an objective of developing a specific product to be sold. 

Wood presents some real unsolved challenges in research ; problems that have 
been recognized for many years but still are not completely solved. Take the case 
of lignin, a fraction of wood that is removed in chemical pulping and used for 
fuel or, in many cases, discarded. The used cooking liquors from chemical pulping 
carry as much as twelve million tons a year of this material. Many researchers 
for a long time have directed their efforts towards this challenge — fundamental 
researchers toward learning what lignin is, and applied researchers toward making 
useful products. Many uses have been found but, while very interesting, do not 
begin to have the volume that matches the available supply of raw material; 
and there is a real opportunity for more applied research to discover useful 
products that can be recovered from cooking liquor. 

Dimensional change with moisture change is a well-known handicap to wood 
in many uses, and means of overcoming this property is being studied extensively. 
Recent efforts to improve stability have included the use of polyethylene glycol — 
1000 in green wood before kiln drying — and offer a possible answer to the type 
of treatment needed. If it is ever possible to develop a low-cost process for 
stabilizing wood to avoid the expansion and contraction due to moisture changes, 
its utility will be greatly increased. The same problems of expansion and con- 
traction with moisture change also exist in paper. There are many more practical 
problems of this type, the answers to which may well be found in fundamental 
research discovering methods of changing the properties of cellulose. The College 
of Forestry has been one of the leaders in the fields of applied research through 
the Empire Research Associates and in fundamental research through the Cellu- 
lose Research Institute, not to mention much outstanding research as done in 
other departments. 

157 



The other large user of wood besides lumber is the pulp and paper industry, 
an industry that has had a long and successful history of using wood pulp for 
an ever- increasing number and variety of useful products. The record of paper 
production gives ample evidence of this growth: 2 million tons in 1900; 9 
million tons, 1925; 24 million tons, 1950; and 34 million tons, I960. Many 
developments have contributed to this growth. 

The importance of paper to the business of growing trees is apparent when 
we remember that over 98 per cent of the paper produced in the United States 
comes from wood pulp. Many other materials are produced in thin sheets, but 
none of them have the adaptability of paper, and none are used to any extent for 
writing or printing. The variety of properties and characteristics that can be 
produced in paper are a direct result of the unique character of the cellulose 
fiber found in trees and other plants. The great utility of this fiber results from 
its size and shape, from its chemical reactivity, and its unique property of absorb- 
ing water when mechanically beaten and rubbed. The result of this mechanical 
treatment, commonly called hydration, gives a gelatinous surface to the fiber and 
makes it adhere to other fibers, and the bond between such fibers in a sheet of 
paper give a strong adhesion of one fiber to another when the paper is dried. 
The whole paper industry is based on this one characteristic of a wood fiber. 

The wide use that is made of paper is also a result of its low cost, and this in 
turn is due to the nature of wood. While usable cellulose fibers exist in most 
grasses, weeds, straw, canes, and in the seed hairs of some plants, none of these 
sources begin to compare to trees in cost of harvesting and processing. Trees 
provide large compact packages of one of the most useful fibers found in nature. 
The percentage of cellulose fiber to other materials is high, and the advantage 
of a material in such a concentrated, usable form accounts for the preponderant 
use of wood instead of other fibers and for the low cost of paper. Add to this 
the ability to grow continuing crops economically, and we realize that tree 
farming and papermaking are inseparably tied together and insure a strong, 
continuing industry. 

Manufacturing processes have been constantly improved to produce paper at 
higher speeds with less labor and more efficient use of materials. In this way the 
cost of paper has been kept low so that it can be widely used for all sorts of 
printed communications, books, magazines, newspapers, and advertising pam- 
phlets. Another factor, and the major one contributing to the expansion of the 
paper industry, is application of paper and paperboard to all types of packaging. 
More than half of the paper and paperboard produced is used in cartons, boxes, 
and shipping containers. These uses are large, for example, the idea of delivering 
milk in paper would have been scoffed at by our grandparents. Yet today most 
of the milk for home consumption is distributed in this way. Five hundred 
seventy thousand tons of paperboard are used in a year for this purpose. This 
approximates the growth of wood on half a million acres of good southern 
pineland. 

158 



While it may seem to you that almost everything arrives at your home in paper, 
there are still many challenges in packaging. 

If you seek a specific challenge, the development of fully satisfactory and 
economical quart containers for motor oil would provide an outlet for the growth 
from many more thousand of acres of forest. The problem has been studied 
for at least twenty-five years and success has seemed close at times, but to date 
has not been grasped. 

It might be of interest to describe in some detail a new application of paper- 
board which is just now being put to general use. The traditional method of 
distributing bananas has been to load the stems by hand labor at the Central 
American ports in specially built racks in special ships which deliver them to 
ripening houses at the major cities of distribution, where they are unloaded again 
by hand labor and hung to ripen. The clusters of bananas are then cut from 
the stems, placed in returnable trays and delivered to the stores. The bananas are 
frequently bruised, detracting from their appearance, the spoilage is high, and 
the labor, expensive. A group from the paperboard industry, experienced in 
packaging, spent over three years working on the problem and devised pro- 
cedures which deliver bananas without the unsightly bruises, with far less loss, 
and at a major saving. The solution of the problem involved the development 
of equipment and procedures for removing the clusters from the stems, sorting, 
washing, and cooling the bananas, and placing them in paperboard containers 
at the point of collection in Central America. These containers are then trucked 
on pallets into the ships, from the ships to the ripening rooms, then to the ware- 
house or retail store, still in the same corrugated board container. In addition to 
eliminating damage and lowering handling costs, the stems and defective fruit 
are discarded before shipment, avoiding the cost of handling and disposal of 
these. The new procedures are in use now, and it is expected that the majority 
of the industry will convert to this procedure. The potential usage of paperboard 
for this purpose is estimated at approximately 300,000 tons per year. 

The clothing market is one that has attracted more than the passing interest 
of the paper industry. Paper dresses have served as the subject of considerable 
publicity. Such a use has imaginative possibilities, but aside from the ballyhoo 
aspects the subject has had, it continues to receive serious attention. The non- 
woven fabrics are akin to paper in many ways. Paper has displaced textiles 
to a considerable extent for napkins and handkerchiefs. Is it unreasonable that 
it may compete with textiles in other uses? 

Paper technology is not without its unsolved problems also. The property 
of imbibing water, which is the basis of hydration of the wood fiber and paper- 
making, is closely allied to its affinity for atmospheric moisture. The amount of 
water the fiber takes on from the air varies with the humidity, and unfortunately 
the fiber swells and shrinks as it takes on or loses moisture. This, of course, causes 
the sheet of paper to expand and contract and interferes with precise multicolor 
printing, and many other uses that require precise accuracy. To date no one has 

159 



found an economical method of stabilizing the dimensions of a sheet of paper, 
but who can say the challenge will not be met tomorrow. 

Wood can be used as the raw material for chemicals and some important 
chemical industries have been built on wood. In colonial times and up to about 
1820, large areas of hardwoods were cut and burned and the ashes leached to 
produce potash. At the peak, over two million dollars worth of this chemical 
was shipped to Europe per year in addition to a substantial use here for soap and 
glassmaking. A wasteful process, yes, but it served a purpose in times when 
cleared land, not wood, was the need. This business quickly folded when the 
much cheaper production of soda ash from salt was discovered in Europe. 

Later a large and thriving industry was based on the destructive distillation 
of wood to produce methyl alcohol, acetone and charcoal. This industry was dealt 
a mortal blow by the discovery of processes for making methyl alcohol from 
natural gas, and distillation plants were all but done for when outdoor cooking 
created a big market for charcoal briquets. This added return has allowed the 
industry to stay alive. There is a need for other uses for the tremendous volume 
of hardwoods now going to waste or taking up land that could be growing 
valuable softwoods. 

In Europe a process for the production of sugar and alcohol from wood 
has been used in wartimes, but the costs involved do not compete with those of 
other forms of starch and sugar, and the possibilities of a major chemical industry 
using wood for its raw material seem remote. 

You are, I am sure, familiar with the very important industry using wood 
pulp to produce rayon, cellophane, explosives, films, plastics and lacquers. These 
commodities, while facing strong competition, appear to have a continuing future 
because of the low cost of wood pulp. The opportunity of extending the use 
of wood pulp to new products is being actively pursued. 

The most challenging chemical utilization problem in the wood industry field 
is the utilization of the used cooking liquors of the chemical pulping process. 
This has intrigued manufacturers and researchers for many years, and I wish I 
were able to predict that we are at the threshold of revolutionary discoveries that 
will make those materials usable for something more valuable than fuel, but the 
needed discoveries have not been made. 

The principal component of the used liquor is lignin and its products of reac- 
tion. The used liquor residues have been intriguing because they are organic com- 
pounds of complicated and unknown composition. Hope never dies, and research 
and discovery may some day bring the great reward. In the meantime, many 
worthwhile applications, with which you are undoubtedly familiar, have been 
developed to use a small portion of the material available. 

Bark is largely in a similar position. Large quantities of bark, found on the 
logs carried to the mills, are removed and used as fuel. Chemical research has 
found several very interesting compounds in bark. Substantial quantities of the 
bark of certain species are being profitably used, but they are still only a minute 
160 



fraction of the supplies available. The profitable utilization of bark, other than 
for fuel, still remains a challenge. 

These two materials, bark and waste cooking liquor, offer great opportunity 
for the fundamental researcher to unravel their composition and for the applied 
researcher to put them to a valuable use. 

There is a challenge of a different nature that I would like to call to the 
attention of the students and recent graduates who may be present — the challenge 
that there is in wood-using industries for a career. Such a career can be interesting, 
in fact absorbing, and provide many new frontiers for exploration and accom- 
plishment. It provides ample opportunity to be closely associated with nature 
and a great national resource, in doing work that is useful to the cultural and 
material well being of our country and its people. Having the advantages that 
your education at the Forestry College offers, you should give serious considera- 
tion to a career in one of these industries. 

I have talked of the broad challenge of marketing wood profitably to provide 
an incentive for the practice of good forest management. Attention has been 
called to the importance of producing lumber products to meet architectural 
trends and to the role that research can play in the greater use of wood by the 
paper and chemical industries. The basic need for good and ample educational 
facilities is recognized. In essence, what I have hoped to say is that aggressive 
searching for new applications and new needs to be filled will bring forth oppor- 
tunity to develop products that will fill a useful purpose and provide the profit 
to justify the investment and cost of growing trees and thus keep our forestlands, 
as well as a large group of our country's population, gainfully employed. 



161 



The Role of Basic Research 

James S. Bethel 

Head, Special Projects in Science Education Section 

National Science Foundation 



It is a pleasure to participate in this program recognizing the fiftieth anniversary 
of the founding of the College of Forestry of the State of New York. I am 
particularly pleased to be asked to discuss with you the subject "basic research." 
Basic research is a major concern of the agency with which I am associated. The 
National Science Foundation Act of 1950 directed the Foundation to "develop 
and encourage the pursuit of a national policy for the promotion of basic research 
and education in the sciences." 

Before we can effectively discuss the role of basic research in advancing the 
forestry sciences it is necessary to start with some sort of definition of what com- 
prises the forestry sciences and of what we mean by basic research. On at least 
one previous occasion I became involved in a discussion of "what constitutes 
forestry" and was thrown out of the game for arguing with the umpire. Accord- 
ingly, I approach the question of identification of forestry and of basic research 
with somewhat less confidence than that displayed by a rookie pitcher who was 
trying out with the New York Yankees several years ago. He got his chance in an 
exhibition game with the Cardinals and walked the first five men to face him. 
At this point Casey Stengel had seen enough and calling for a relief pitcher 
from the bull pen he motioned the rookie to the dugout. As he approached the 
bench the youngster was heard to mutter: "How do you like that? The oT jerk 
takes me out just when I got a no-hitter going." With somewhat less aplomb 
than this I approach the matter of definitions. 

I should like to propose first that forestry is of itself not a unique science or 
technology. The adhesive that binds foresters together professionally and in fact 
the quality that distinguishes forestry as an area of special scholarly interest is a 
concern for forests, trees and wood and for that quarter of the earth's land surface 
that is devoted to the growing of trees. From this viewpoint forestry is one of 
the great inter-disciplinary fields that are concerned with important segments of 
human environment. It belongs with such other great environmental groupings 
as oceanography, the atmospheric sciences and the earth sciences. Roger Revelle, 
Director of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography has said with respect to ocean- 
ography that: 

"Oceanography is really not a science; it is a study of part of the earth; 
namely, that part of the earth which is covered with water, . . . what you 
really want, of course, are physicists, chemists, etc. — then you persuade them 
to go to sea. In order to persuade them to go to sea, you have to catch them 
pretty young because going to sea on a ship is not a pleasant thing, especially 

162 



if it is for a long period of time. ... Dr. Johnson said, 'No man needs to 
go to sea who has the wit to get himself in jail.'" 

Forestry, too, involves focusing the talents of biologists, chemists, physicists, 
mathematicians, engineers and the like upon the problems associated with forests, 
trees and wood. With our friends in the kindred fields of oceanography, the 
atmospheric sciences and the earth sciences we must catch them young and raise 
them right. What classical geneticist in his right mind would deliberately select 
as an organism for study one that had a normal life span several times that of 
his own? How many physiologists will elect to study the life processes of an 
organism that weighs several tons, commonly has a diameter of several feet and 
a height in excess of one hundred feet? There have been relatively few organic 
chemists challenged by the enigma of the lignin molecule. What physicist offered 
the glamour of studies of cosmic radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance or plasma 
phenomena would be content to determine how moisture moves in wood? Forestry 
must provide the focal point for basic research in the forestry related sciences. 

The future of forestry and the forest based industries depends upon research 
and development. Much of this will be applied research and product develop- 
ment but this in turn depends upon basic research in the biological and physical 
sciences related to forests, trees and wood. Progress in forestry has already been 
seriously handicapped because of lack of basic scientific research in many areas 
of the forestry related sciences. 

At this point it might be appropriate for us to consider what we mean by 
basic research. In view of the fact that basic research is a very popular subject 
for discussion by scientists these days, one might suppose that it has been care- 
fully defined and that its boundary conditions have been precisely specified. 
Nothing could be farther from the truth. Scientists themselves cannot agree 
on what it is. 

Several years ago, the National Science Foundation made a study to determine 
the extent of the Federal government's support of basic research in the colleges 
and universities. University officials estimated that during the year in question, 
they received from the research supporting Federal agencies about 85 million 
dollars in support of basic research. The officials in these Federal agencies estimated 
that they provided barely half that amount to the educational institutions for 
basic research during the same year. This motivated Dr. Charles Kidd of the 
National Institutes of Health to point out: 

"Somewhere between the offices in Washington which hand out research 
funds and answer questionnaires and the offices in universities which receive 
funds and answer questionnaires, the meaning of the definitions of basic 
research undergoes a metamorphosis that permits one set of observers to 
find the quantity to be twice as large as the other observers say it is. Such 
a discrepancy raises a number of questions including the nature of the defini- 
tions that provide such a flexible yardstick." 

163 



In a sense, the term basic research is an abstraction and as Alexis de Tocqueville 
said: 

"An abstract term is like a box with a false bottom; you may put in it 
what ideas you please, and take them out again without being observed." 

A scientist is likely to view basic research in terms of his own background. 
The situation is somewhat reminiscent of the mountaineer on his first visit to 
the city. He was particularly fascinated by the asphalt streets. Scraping his foot 
on the surface, he remarked to his son: "Well I can't blame them for building 
a town here. The ground is too durned hard to plow anyway." Former Secretary 
of Defense Charles E. Wilson, viewing research from the peculiar vantage point 
of a man who came up in industry through sales once defined basic research as 
"what you do when you don't know what you're doing." 

A more common misconception of basic research is that it is impractical re- 
search as compared with the more practical applied research. This is, of course, 
not true and as a thesis it can be easily discredited. The distinguished British 
scientist, Michael Faraday, devoted his life to basic research in the physical sciences. 
He was completely indifferent to the utility of his work. On one occasion when 
a politician asked about the practical value of his research, he disdainfully re- 
torted, "some day you may be able to tax it!" This was a prophetic statement 
indeed for every electric motor and generator is a monument to the ultimate 
practicality of his research. Faraday himself was not ignorant of the practical 
potential of his work; he was simply indifferent to it. 

The historic experiments with the cross breeding of red and white flowered 
peas conducted by the Monk Gregor Johann Mendel in the garden of an Austrian 
monastery were pursued solely to satisfy a great curiosity. Nonetheless, these 
experiments have in the final analysis had tremendous practical implications. 

The President's Science Advisory Committee stated in a report issued in Novem- 
ber I960: 

"Because basic research is aimed at understanding rather than at practical 
results, the layman sometimes assumes that it is entirely abstract and theo- 
retical, and that only when it becomes a matter of industrial development 
does it 'come down to earth.' This is a false notion, and its falsity becomes 
increasingly clear with time." 

If then we cannot distinguish between basic research and applied research on 
the basis of its practicality, what is an appropriate criterion? 

The significant fact is that the motivation of the research worker pursuing 
basic research is a thirst for knowledge and not a concern for the practical value 
of that knowledge. Kenneth Petzer has stated that "the strongest human driving 
force in basic research is curiosity." Hans Selye the distinguished Canadian 
biologist defines basic research as: "the study of natural laws for their own sake, 
irrespective of immediate practical applicability with emphasis on immediate." 
Dr. Alan Waterman, Director of the National Science Foundation, has pointed 
out that "because basic research is done without conscious thought of what its 

164 



future usefulness may be, it is a type of research that is least understood and, 
therefore, the most difficult for which to find support in a world that lives chiefly 
in the pragmatical present." 

There is much more applied research going on than basic research. It is much 
easier to obtain support for applied research designed to solve practical problems 
than for basic research designed to put questions to nature. Still, it is true that if 
basic research does not move ahead, applied research will also stagnate. Vannevar 
Bush in Science the Endless Frontier said: 

"Basic research leads to new knowledge. It provides scientific capital. It 
creates the fund from which the practical applications of knowledge must 
be drawn." 

The Committee on Institutional Research Policy of the American Council on 
Education noted: 

"Basic research is analogous to a checking account in a bank. If such 
funds are withdrawn and not replaced, the account will soon be overdrawn. 
Similarly, basic research is constantly "drawn on" for the discoveries and 
applications necessary for progress. If our basic research account is not re- 
plenished, we face the danger of intellectual bankruptcy." 

The tasks of the research workers in the broad inter- disciplinary fields are 
very difficult. These fields by their very nature involve all of the basic scientific 
disciplines and require that these be joined together and focused upon the prob- 
lems of an important element of the environment. When one considers the 
very rapid rate of growth of knowledge in the sciences this becomes a task of 
tremendous proportions. The volume of scientific literature in the libraries of 
the world has doubled every ten years and the production of doctorates in the 
sciences has increased at the same rate. Ninety per cent of the scientists that ever 
lived are alive today and this has been true since the time of Isaac Newton. 

Coincident with the growth of the traditional science disciplines of biology, 
chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology and the like, has come the development 
and growth of the important bridging disciplines. Some of the most important 
advances in science are today being made in such fields as bio-chemistry, bio- 
physics, geo-chemistry, geo-physics and astro-physics. In science as in farming 
we are finding that "the most fertile soil lies where the old fences used to be." 

In this scientific explosion — if forestry is to keep pace with the other broad 
inter-disciplinary fields — it must take advantage of all of the opportunities inherent 
in uncommitted basic research. 

How can we marshall the forces required to accomplish the basic research 
needed if applied research and product development in forestry is to proceed at 
a satisfactory rate? It is clear now that this will not occur accidentally. It must be 
brought about through the conscious and deliberate action of the forestry com- 
munity itself. ' 

The solution of the problem of increasing basic research lies in education 
and this places it at the doors of our universities. The preparation of a research 

165 



worker is accomplished in the graduate school. The motivation and the encourage- 
ment must begin much earlier than that. In the undergraduate forestry school 
the able student with apparent potential as a research worker must be identified 
early in his college career. If he is interested in a career in research he should 
be relieved of the rigid professional course requirements and encouraged to 
participate in undergraduate research and independent study. Such a student ought 
to be encouraged to develop strength in the basic science of his choice and to 
continue to relate this to forestry. What may be a very appropriate curriculum 
for the man who wishes to practice forestry or wood technology in the forest 
or factory is a totally inadequate preparation for graduate study in the forestry 
sciences today. 

It is at the graduate level that real preparation for research takes place. Here 
the forestry community must make every effort to encourage high-ability under- 
graduates with good sound science backgrounds to pursue graduate study in 
forestry. The best of the forestry undergraduates ought to be enrolled in the 
graduate programs. In addition, very able science majors from liberal arts colleges 
should be brought into forestry graduate programs. Yale University, Duke Uni- 
versity and the Institute of Paper Chemistry have historically attracted good 
non-forestry undergraduates to graduate work in forestry. Other strong graduate 
programs ought to take a close look at this source of good graduate students. 

If forestry is to take advantage of the full scope of the relevant sciences it 
must encourage breadth of training at the graduate level with little emphasis on 
professional training. Faculty and graduate students must be permitted to engage 
in basic research without regard to the immediate applicability of the results. The 
essence of graduate education is basic research and this is true even for the 
student who ultimately goes into applied research or product development. 

Certainly most of forestry is concerned with practical matters. Nonetheless, 
its ultimate progress depends upon basic research — the search for knowledge for 
its own sake. We might well recall from the essays of Thomas Huxley, published 
about seventy-five years ago: 

"It has become obvious that the interests of science and of industry are 
identical ; that science cannot make a step forward without, sooner or later, 
opening up new channels for industry; and on the other hand, that every 
advance of industry facilitates those experimental investigations, upon which 
the growth of science depends. We may hope that, at last, the weary mis- 
understanding between the practical men who professed to despise science, 
and the high and dry philosophers who professed to despise practical results, 
is at an end." 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bush, Vannevar, Science The Endless Frontier, Office of Scientific Research and 

Development, July 1945. 
Committee on Institutional Research Policy, American Council on Education 

Sponsored Research Policy 0} Colleges and Universities. 

166 



de Tocqueville, A., Democracy in America. Vol. II, Book I. 

Huxley, Thomas H., Methods and Results. D. Appleton and Co., New York, 

1899, 930 pp. 
Kidd, Charles, V., "Basic Research — Description vs. Definition." Science, 

Vol. 129. 
National Science Foundation, Basic Research a National Resource. (Washington, 

D.C, 1957). 
President's Science Advisory Committee, Scientific Progress, the Universities, and 

the Federal Government. November 15, I960. 
Selye, Hans, "What makes Basic Research Basic," Saturday Evening Post, January 

24, 1959. 



167 



Wood Product Development 



Herbert B. McKean 

Director of Research 
Potlatch Forests, Inc. 



It is a real pleasure to be a part of this Golden Anniversary celebration of my 
College. I feel a sort of a kinship with the College — not merely as an old grad 
but also because it's my own Golden Anniversary year too. Hal Boyle, the news- 
paper columnist, says "If you have a chance to become fifty, don't pass it by. It's 
just worth waiting for." I'm sure that for the N. Y. State College of Forestry 
this Fiftieth Anniversary year will be one of many golden years in the College 
history. 

In a way I'm not only an old grad of this College, but also I'm sort of an old 
timer in forest products research. I started back in the fall of '34 and have been 
in part time or full time research ever since. Wood products research is my life. 
The future life of the wood products industry is in research. So I am always glad 
to talk on the subject and hope to win a few more friends for wood products 
research. 

Before completing these introductory comments I want to take advantage of 
this opportunity to pay tribute to the N. Y. State College of Forestry. First, of 
course, we've seen ample evidence these few days of an excellent present admin- 
istration. Furthermore, the splendid attainments of the College also reflect the 
fine caliber of previous administrations. Going back to my own College days 
I want particularly to acknowledge the wisdom, counsel and the practical advice 
of my major professor, Nelson C. Brown. 

GOALS FOR WOOD PRODUCT RESEARCH 

The past fifteen years have been credited with almost as much advance as the 
previous 169 years of U.S. history. What G.I. returning from World War II 
would have predicted that in fifteen years the time to fly commercial planes 
across the country would drop from fifteen hours to five hours forty minutes? 
Who, in '45, would have foreseen the miracle drugs available in I960? How 
many at War's end predicted that the average family would watch a picture in 
an electronic box forty-two man hours per week. 

So far as I know only one major lumber firm was conducting research in '45 ; 
today there are dozens of medium to large sawmills conducting product develop- 
ment. It's been an exciting fifteen years, but the next fifteen offer greater challenges. 

The population will increase 50 million. 

G.N.P. will be $1 trillion. 

The future is bright for the industry ready to meet these opportunities. 

The opportunity is there. What will wood products industries do with it? 

168 



What will be set as research goals? 

There is the one most obvious goal for all industrial research — that goal is 
to make a profit for the firm that is paying the bills. But let's look at some of 
the other goals to be achieved in order to make that profit. One word summarizes 
all the other goals — "diversification." 

One important area of diversification which lumber and plywood researchers 
should be exploring is development of refined and semi-refined wood products. 
Instead of boards perhaps we should be shipping factory finished interior panel ; 
instead of dimension we should be furnishing knock down or assembled trusses ; 
instead of plywood sheets possibly we should combine plywood, lumber and 
metal to make a building component. When a lumberman makes specialties or 
refined products he moves away from the disastrously wide price fluctuations that 
have plagued the lumber and plywood industries from their inception. Potlatch 
produces a number of such items, as do other lumbermen. During this recession, 
which we think is now ending, prices on those specialty items have stayed con- 
stant and demand remained satisfactory. In fact, two of our lumber specialties 
have had price increases. 

Wood products must be devised that will give the industry greater sales in 
commercial, industrial, church and school construction. 

Another area that could pay dividends for proper effort is in the industrial 
field. Years ago there was hardly a manufactured product that did not contain 
wood. Today products devoid of wood are legion. Research can develop markets 
for wood in many industrial plants such as railroad car repair, automobiles, radio 
and TV, just to mention a few. Here again price fluctuations will be less and 
long term contracts are possible. 

There are opportunities in consumer items. Products for the hobbyist, fencing, 
garden furniture, horticultural products, camping needs, sporting goods and many 
other possibilities beckon. Consumer items, however, require different marketing 
than boards and dimension so not all lumber and plywood manufacturers should 
aim to diversify into this area — it has many rewards as well as many pitfalls. 

Another field that will someday be rewarding is in wood chemistry. One of 
the problems that perhaps only chemistry can solve is the utilization of the many 
tons of bark available. At our own Idaho mills we have 400 tons daily. Industry 
simply is not working at it hard enough, perhaps hoping that the state and 
Federal institutions will ultimately find some answers. 

PROBLEMS FACING WOOD PRODUCTS RESEARCH 

Goals are closely related to problems. The goals are often attained by over- 
coming problems. So I want to present some of the major problems, major diffi- 
culties, facing wood products industries ; problems for which the best solutions 
will be found in product development. 

One of the most serious problems of the lumber and plywood industry is 
its dependence upon the housing industry. Figure 2 illustrates how dependent 
the lumber industry is on housing. Time after time when housing has hit a low, 

169 



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\ . - _ — - __ — . Lumber Productions 






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50 '51 '52 '53 '54 '55 


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Fig. 2. — The influence of housing starts on lumber production. 

other types of construction have maintained an even balance or sometimes in- 
creased. But wood has been pushed out of these other fields by codes and com- 
petition so that lumber and plywood falter as housing slows. F. W. Dodge reports 
total construction was practically as good in '60 as in '59. In fact, industrial and 
commercial construction scored notable gains. But housing fell, carrying lumber 
and plywood with it. 

The problem is further confounded by the influence of these market swings 
on prices. A loss of 4 per cent in lumber sales will spark sharp price reductions. 
Lower sales coupled to lower prices result in drastically reduced profit. Standard 
& Poor reports lumber production in the month of September 1959 was 3^3 
billion board feet; fifteen months later it had declined to 2^ billion feet, a drop 
of 32 per cent. Lumber prices dropped 10 per cent in that same fifteen months. 

Thus one of the challenges for product development is to find products with 
good volumes in fields other than housing. 

A problem intimately related to housing and wood products dependence thereon 
is the extensive past inroads of competitors and the intensive continuing effort 
competitors are making to take still further markets in housing. Thinking back 
to the end of World War II, there was great excess capacity of metals in particular 
but other materials as well. Housing was the one great untapped market available 
for many of those materials. They were slow to start but by the early 50's the 
effect was everywhere. 

1. It has been reported that lumber lost 70 per cent of its siding market in 
ten years. 

2. F.H.A. has reported 40 per cent of its insured mortgage houses are on 
concrete slabs — conservatively that's a loss of 1.2 billion board feet annually. 

3. The Aluminum Association reports that 25 per cent of its production is 
destined for construction. 

170 



4. Business Week stated that in 1955 there was an average of fifty-five pounds 
of aluminum in every house. Today it averages 175 pounds — a 350 per cent 
increase. In four more years the amount will be doubled again. 

The struggle for home markets was highlighted in the June 18, I960, issue of 
Business Week under the caption "Basic Materials Battle for Home-Building 
Market." Parts of two sentences summarize the situation — "It's clear that some 
of the older suppliers have suffered jolts . . . New and aggressive competition 
has crashed into the field." 

In The Kiplinger Magazine of January, 1961, John Dewey tells how he believes 
houses will be built in 1975. He notes prefabbing and goes on to discuss mate- 
rials — plastics will be used for walls, floors and roofs ; aluminum sandwich panels 
will eliminate framework; the all steel prefab house will be revived. Wood? 
He doesn't even mention it. 

The inroads of competition have steadily decreased per capita consumption 
of lumber for fifty-five years. Lumber had its peak for both total production (40 
billion bd. ft.) and per capita consumption (523 b.f.) in the first decade of 
this century. By '29 per capita use had dropped to 268 bd. ft. It bounced back 
to more than 300 b.f. for one year during World War II. It's fluctuated some 
but the trend has been downward reaching a new low for two decades in I960. 
Lumber consumption by railroads was V/ 2 billion board feet in 1929; only 
330 million board feet in '56. One firm sold 43 million b.f. to railroads in '38; 
only 4 million in '60. 

Paper and paperboard have shown steadily increasing total production, some- 
what in line with the increase in consumer disposable income and generally in- 
creasing per capita consumption. It's not uncommon around our office upon 
learning of a new baby for someone to remark "There's another 420 pounds 
annual increase in paper consumption." But we aren't assured of markets. Potlatch 
paperboard is largely a food container board. In a recent two-day survey of changes 
in food containers just in our small city we found three food firms market testing 
new plastic packages vs. paperboard packages. The Wall Street Journal of Decem- 
ber 28, I960, reports that oil firms are developing new plastics for food containers. 
Have you noticed that Hershey has introduced plastic bags to replace paperboard 
for its chocolate bars? In 1952 plastics in packages amounted to $32 million; 
last year it reached $200 million. 

All the while we're losing markets the trees are growing up around us. The 
St. Joe National Forest in northern Idaho has doubled its allowable cut in the 
last five years; plans provide for doubling again by 1970; in another forty years 
it will be doubled again. 

The Forestry Survey reports that in twenty southwest Arkansas counties there 
was a net increase of 4l/ 2 billion b.f. of standing saw timber in nine years. Five 
billion b.f. had been harvested in that area during that interval. 

Irving Trust Company recently conducted a seminar mainly directed toward 
the cost of capital. Capital is derived from stockholders' investment through the 
purchase of capital stock and through retained earnings, as well as the sale of 

171 



senior securities, such as debentures and preferred stock and long and short term 
loans from banks, investment trusts, pension trusts, and other sources. 

In this seminar the 1959 P.F.I. Annual Report was reviewed. The year 1959 
was the most profitable year Potlatch has had. The Company was somewhat 
criticized in the seminar because even in our most profitable year, our earnings 
after taxes amounting to 9-3 per cent on investment were not considered to be 
adequate. In '60 it was down to 5.67 per cent. The bank indicated that businesses 
should earn 10 per cent on employed capital after taxes on an average. If the 
business were a hazardous one in which profits vacillated, the earnings ratio 
should be higher in the better years so as to provide the 10 per cent average 
throughout a period. 

The problems the research director faces can be summarized: 1. Despite increas- 
ing wealth and population traditional markets are declining. 2. Competition for 
markets becomes more intense. 3. The industry does not earn enough on invested 
capital to attract new venture money. 

Product development has the responsibility to solve these problems. At the 
present rate of research throughout the industry it's a losing battle. 

So batten down the hatches ; trim the sails ; take on ballast ; prepare for rough 
weather ahead. 

THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 

It is often said that good research makes a company successful. I'd like to 
rephrase that statement by emphasizing that good management makes successful 
research possible. It is almost universally accepted that industrial research must 
be the responsibility of the president or general manager. 

Next to interested management, perhaps the most important ingredient of 
successful research is cooperation. Regardless of the worth of a product if pro- 
duction is disinterested or lackadaisical, new products will not succeed. The pro- 
duction manager who is lukewarm lets the best of ideas fail. The road between 
the laboratory and the market place is strewn with failures through lack of pro- 
duction interest. 

Marketing must also cooperate. The man who talked about the world beating 
a path for a better mouse trap just didn't live in a modern society. Without sales 
we're lost. I keep reminding researchers that all we do is pile up the red ink. 
Only when a product is sold can a profit start. So I'm glad marketing is a part 
of this panel. 

In summary, research organization must provide for the selection of new prod- 
ucts, the execution of the research and the commercialization of the results. 

Project Selection 

The first step on the road to a new product is selecting the best. I once knew 
a man whose philosophy was "When in doubt say 'No'." But saying "no" when 
you should have said "yes" in selecting projects can be most costly. Suppose in 
1884 George Eastman had said "no" to the idea of making flexible roll films. 
It would have cost his company millions over the years. 

172 



Several people should have the selection responsibility and certain guides 
should be set. For example, does a lumber firm want to get into the consumer 
market? If not, things like charcoal and fertilizer should be avoided. Does a 
lumber firm want to diversify? If so it should seek product ideas that will lead 
into industrial products, new types of construction or other areas. 

Is the company willing to establish manufacturing and sales facilities for an 
entirely different line? What kind of financing is available to build manufacturing 
facilities and to promote the new product? Guides are needed — it's obvious that 
development of a piece of electronic machinery will be profitable but even though 
the skills are available, it's unlikely that a lumber manufacturer should try to 
develop it. 

With guideposts established the selection committee must answer a number 
of questions. One of the first is to establish that there is adequate raw material. 
Another step is to determine whether the customer wants it and what will he 
pay for it. Then an estimate of the manufacturing cost is needed to see if it can 
be profitably made at the price the consumer will pay. A patent search should 
be made not only to determine patentability but also to avoid infringement. Each 
case is an individual requiring many considerations. Perhaps they can all be 
summed up in four questions. Is it practical? Is it profitable? Is it patentable? 
Do people want it? 

Before leaving project selection, I should mention two important guides I 
use. The first is to emphasize new products while de-emphasizing improvement 
of old ones. The latter is the easiest field in which to work especially if a man 
developed the old product. The successful new product, however, is generally 
more profitable. The second guide is to maintain close liaison with marketing 
groups and customers. 

Project Execution 

Research today is a productive, coordinated effort involving many skills inside 
and outside the laboratory. When a project is approved and assigned to research 
a project leader must be selected, and co-workers made available to him. Much 
planning is required out of which will come the work program. 

A tentative schedule should be established. The needed equipment will be 
provided. Knowledge outside the laboratory will be made available at proper 
times. Funds for the program will be estimated. The project leader under the 
supervision of the director will conduct the work and coordinate research of 
others involved making sure that schedules are met where practical and that the 
several phases are developed in a manner that necessary results will be available 
when needed. 

In other words, the conduct of a project includes planning, timing, budgeting, 
assignments, supervision and of course some work in the laboratory. 

Commercialization 

Somewhere along the line the division which will be responsible for the new 
product begins to take over from research. This will usually be a gradual transi- 

173 



tion. Engineers will consult researchers on equipment design. Production, sales 
and research will make final product specification. The merchandisers and ad 
agency will develop the marketing program. Accountants will get ideas from 
research, engineering and production on costs and check against sales prices. 
Many things will go on; a product manager with general responsibility can 
greatly smooth out this stage. 

I believe more products have failed in this stage than ever failed in the labora- 
tory. There everyone is partial to the new product ; mothers it along with tender 
loving care. As it approaches the market, however, it has got to be sold to others 
both inside and outside the company. The product may be good, but these other 
people are busy with other things too. Furthermore, the costs of commercializing 
are generally much greater — some say ten times greater — than the costs of research. 

There's another problem about this time too. Every research man can see one 
last improvement that should be made before his baby is turned over to the public. 
Someone has to say, "This is as far as research goes." The specs are set and the 
product must move out of the laboratory. 

EXAMPLES OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS 

One of the departments at the Lewiston, Idaho, operation was burning large 
quantities of wood residues. Everyone knew that these residues were being sent 
to the boilers but it was generally believed that the volume of material was too 
small to warrant the installation of the $200,000 worth of necessary equipment 
to convert these residues into suitable size chips for paper making. 

The measurement of the quantity of this residue appeared to be an extremely 
inexpensive research item so management agreed to a project with the objective 
of determining the quantity of chipable waste available at that point. Merely 
a week of measurement and computation revealed a source of $90,000 worth 
of chips per year. With a payout period of just over two years, management 
promptly provided the necessary funds to convert those residues into valuable 
pulp chips. 

This example is only one of several that could be cited where everybody knew 
of a situation but it was left up to Research to suggest that data be collected to 
determine the merits of spending the money to convert the residue into the 
valuable by-product. On this basis, I like to think of research as a catalyst in 
the industrial situation getting things done that were known about but which 
were not done until research provided the spark — the information — that estab- 
lished the value of an undertaking. 

Laminated 2 x 4's 

The development of the laminated 2 x 4 at Potlatch illustrates a number of steps 
in product development and also demonstrates some of the problems. 

Shortly after the Research Department was established, management pointed to 
a surplus of 1 x 4's and a shortage of 2 x 4's. Research was told to try to develop 
174 



a laminated 2 x 4 as a solution to both of these problems. A general specification 
for the product was established. It must be: 

1. Glued with exterior type glue in order to meet F.H.A. requirements. 

2. Be the same cross-sectional dimensions as solid 2x4's. 

3. Provide approximately the same strength as equivalent grade solid material. 

4. The laminated 2x4 must be sold at the same price as the solid 2x4 and 
show a profit on the operation. 

In order to be profiable while selling at the same price as solid 2 x 4's and 
still provide an exterior glue line, it was obvious that the least expensive exterior 
type glue must be used. This required the use of high temperature setting phenol 
formaldehyde glue. The Research efforts, therefore, were concentrated on adapt- 
ing this inexpensive glue to a laminating process. In using the phenol formalde- 
hyde glue in plywood, hot presses are used and the glue coated veneers are held 
in the hot press until the heat is conducted through the veneers from the hot 
plates to the glue lines in the layup. With 1-inch laminates, hot pressing was 
immediately discarded. Acid catalyzed phenol adhesives were considered but also 
discarded as being too expensive. Some preliminary work was done with a high 
frequency edge gluing machine but for several reasons this approach also did 
not seem satisfactory at that time. 

Remembering that the cure time of urea resins had been greatly reduced in 
commercial operations by heating one of the faces of the wood prior to bringing 
the pieces together, I decided to see if a preheat system could be used to com- 
pletely cure high temperature setting phenol formaldehyde adhesives. The re- 
search work on this idea was turned over to Dr. George Marra at Washington 
State University where a satisfactory procedure was developed. 

Having established that preheat of the surfaces to be joined could fully cure 
high temperature setting phenols and also having available the specifications 
under which the operation must be conducted, the Research Department of Pot- 
latch undertook to design and operate a pilot plant to study the idea. 

The pilot plant was to be capable of producing 2 x 4's long enough to market 
commercially and was required to be as fully automated as possible. The develop- 
ment of this plant is described elsewhere so need not be described herein. 

While the pilot plant studies were underway, work with the Western Pine 
Association was taken up to get a grade established for the 2 x 4's and also to obtain 
F.H.A. acceptance of the laminated 2x4. The Western Pine Association grade 
was promptly established and approved; after some delays the F.H.A. also per- 
mitted the use of the laminated 2 x 4 in F.H.A. insured mortgage homes. 

During the course of the operation of the pilot plant about y 2 million board 
feet of 2 x 4's had been sold to establish that the 2 x 4's could be made profitably 
and that the market would accept them. At the end of the pilot plant program, 
the matter was turned over to production and sales for commercial exploitation. 
At this point, we encountered another problem very typical of the lumber industry. 
During the course of the research and pilot plant studies, the market situation had 

175 



changed to the point that the sales department found they needed all their 1 x 4's 
to satisfy customers' demands for inexpensive furring strips. 

One other problem is also worth mentioning. One day after showing a visitor 
the 2 x 4 pilot plant we stepped out of the door as a straddle buggy was dropping 
a load of lumber just outside of the 2x4 laminating operation. What was this 
load of lumber? It was a load of 2 x 4's that had just been sawed into 1 x 4's. 

The conclusion of the comment about laminated 2 x 4's is that the customers 
who had purchased the laminated 2 x 4's during pilot plant like them so well and 
kept up their requests for so long that finally at a price for the laminated 2 x 4's 
$20 per M b.f . above the price for solid 2 x 4's, the company is converting every 
available piece of 1 x 4 into 2 x 4's. 

Plylumber Flooring 

The development of Plylumber flooring is described here because it has gone 
through so many of the research and development activities that it is a good 
illustration of the research process. The general idea was to develop panelized 
flooring that could be quickly installed. 

For the panel to be successful and competitive in cost it would be necessary 
that the unit combine both subfloor and finish floor. 

We devised a method of applying thin strips of hardwood to two layers of 
softwood, the middle layer being laid at right angles to the hardwood face and 
the softwood back. Some preliminary cost estimates indicated that the product 
would be economically sound. 

It should be noted that this product is very similar to one which the Tennessee 
Valley Authority had under development for several years following World 
War II. Because of several differences we felt encouraged to continue in this 
development despite the difficulties reported for the TVA product. 

We decided that it would be desirable to make the material as thin as possible 
consistent with available lumber materials. At our Warren operation the manu- 
facture of % 6 " x 2" hardwood flooring had been a standard product for many 
years. We therefore decided that such materials should be used for the face, 
thereby using conventional manufacturing equipment. All of our operations are 
equipped with resaws so resawn lumber from 1-inch boards appeared to be the 
logical choice for the centers and backs. Thus a product about %" in thickness 
became the basis for the work. Later for reasons of greater span and also greater 
stability, a second variety was introduced having the center piece made up of a 
nominal 1-inch board rather than a resawn board. Today, then, we have a %" 
thickness and a 1% 6 " thickness. 

One of the first problems was to determine the serviceability of a cross laminated 
product with the thicknesses of materials that were proposed. Extensive studies 
showed that it would be satisfactory for use in residences. 

After considering many gluing methods, it appeared best to manufacture Ply- 
lumber in single opening hot plate presses of special design. In such a press we 
could meet requirements of F.H.A. that the adhesive be an exterior type. 

176 




Fig. 1.— Raising a prefabricated and factory finished wall panel into position during con- 
struction of an inexpensive wooden industrial building. The fork lift is holding the frame 
member in place until the panel is bolted to it. 



'""H^ :$ 



1 -1 C; r i?E ., . 





is • 

^■llii 



~ h M.T J 



HBHPfi ...... 



Fig. 3. — The press used in making laminated 2 x 4's using the preheat principle of curing 
exterior glues. 




Fig. 4.— Installing Plylumber flooring. 




Fig. 5.— A bending test of the type used to determine the original strength properties of 
Lock-Deck and of the type being run constantly to assure P.F.I, customers that the original 
high strength properties of this product are being maintained through proper selection of 
lumber, control of moisture content and the exercise of proper gluing procedures. The man 
at the right is recording the loads on the piece of Lock-Deck while the man at the left is 
reading the deflections as the test proceeds. 




Fig. 7. The first model of the nondestructive testing apparatus for measuring stiffness. 
The piece being tested has an indicated stiffness of 1,800,000 p.s.i. 



A study was also made to establish best attachment of the flooring to joists. 
Nails, screws, special flanges underneath the floor and other devices were studied. 
Finally, a system of glue-nailing has been adopted. This system, when properly 
applied, will give a greater resistance to diagonal distortation of the floor then 
when diagonally laid subfloor is nailed to the joists. 

Structural properties were determined both in static bending tests and full scale 
floor structures. The data led to our recommending a maximum span of 32 inches 
for the %" product and 4 to 5 feet for the 1% 6 " material. Under proper design 
situations these spans provide good economy in the construction of floor systems. 

At one time there was a considerable team working on Plylumber. One man 
was conducting studies of the durability of the proposed glue joint between the 
Plylumber panel and the supporting floor joist. The pilot plant crew was con- 
sidering how they could get all of the pieces comprising the face into the press, 
all the side joints and all of the end joints closed and what would be the best 
type of press to use. Conferences were underway with home builders to seek 
advice on the best width and length to establish — one foot wide and 16 feet 
long appeared to be the choice with advantages to be gained if specified lengths 
could be manufactured. 

Pilot plant design got underway and later the pilot plant started production. 
At this point, we began to make sales to customers and we also approached gov- 
ernment and code authorities for approvals. 

Possibilities of patents were determined so as to prevent too much competition 
just after we introduce the product to the market. During the pilot plant phase, 
we also brought in the merchandising people and began the planning to provide 
adequate sales for the production that is anticipated. Finally, of course, the pilot 
plant operation itself is supposed to help establish the design of the production 
facilities. 

As the pilot plant work neared completion all of the salesmen in the lumber 
division were advised of the new flooring and told to find markets. In the mean- 
time, the Director of Research urged his own staff as well as the salesmen to be 
on the lookout for other uses. As a consequence, a possible use of this material 
as floors for trucks developed and this market may ultimately prove more success- 
ful than the market in housing. 

At this time we have one house that is two years old and several houses 18 
months old with the Plylumber flooring. It is hoped that sometime during 1961 
this product will be taken out of the hands of Research and become a commercial 
product for the Company. 

Research costs in bringing this product along over the three years on which 
work has been underway amounted to $69,000. New equipment to get the plant 
in operation will be about $40,000 for a production of about two million board 
feet a year. A new building is under construction to house the laminating equip- 
ment for Plylumber but it will also include timber and Lock-Deck laminating. 

Total production will ultimately be in the range of twenty million square feet 
a year. In addition to providing a new product, it also appears that Plylumber 

177 



may be a very satisfactory device for getting other hardwoods into use. Further- 
more, the truck flooring may put us into a new market altogether. 

Laminated Beams 

Another case history of some interest is that of laminated beams. Of course, 
custom laminators have been manufacturing highly satisfactory laminated wood 
for a great many years. Most of these laminators depend very heavily on a good 
sized engineering staff and the sale of laminated beams for specific designs. As 
a consequence, their product is relatively expensive, probably $300 per M b.f. 
minimum price. Solid beams have a price in the range of $100 per M b.f. Some- 
where in between these two prices there seems to be plenty of room for a 
moderately priced laminated beam to be produced on a production basis, manu- 
factured for inventory. A program of this nature was suggested to management 
but was not received with much enthusiasm. Among other things, an independent 
market research reported that such beams would not be widely accepted. Never- 
theless, after continual urging by the Research Department, laminated beams 
were finally put into production. During the year I960, the first year they were 
in production, the Company sold nearly a million board feet. 

An advantage the sawmill has in laminating is to choose the boards best suited 
for laminating and move only those boards to the laminating department. All 
the other boards stay in regular planing mill production. The custom laminator, 
on the other hand, must buy lumber by grade. He must sort it and make other 
arrangements to utilize as fully as possible the wide range of material found in 
his purchased lumber. 

We believe that specialties must be made from standard lumber items — we 
particularly avoid developments requiring special sizes to be cut in the sawmill. 

Lock-Deck 

Our most successful product to date has been Lock-Deck, the tradename for 
a laminated roof deck. It is a three layer product, with the center layer offset to 
form the tongue and groove. 

The product is unique in several ways. It is the first product using parallel 
high frequency gluing of alkaline catalyzed phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. So 
far as we know it's the first parallel RF curing where the glue lines are over 
four inches wide. Its the first high frequency cure of sixteen-foot-long glue lines. 
There was one feature particularly bad for me — even the pilot plant showed a 
profit. My bosses have expected profitable pilot plants ever since. 

The product attained a sales volume of about nine million board feet in I960, 
its second full year in commercial production. 

A NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST FOR STRUCTURAL LUMBER 

Nearly all of the standard tests for measuring the strength properties of wood 
and other materials are based on tests that destroy the test specimen. In order to 
arrive at a design stress for wood, or steel or concrete, tests are made on repre- 
sentative samples to provide averages which after application of certain reduction 

178 



factors provide the values which engineers use in designing their structures. The 
pieces actually used in construction can not be tested. 

The strength of natural material such as wood varies widely, consequently, 
large reduction factors below test averages have been necessary so that if a weak 
piece of a grade gets into a structure, this weak piece will still carry the load 
with a margin to spare. In any one stress grade of any species the strongest piece 
will be five to six times as strong as the weakest. The average in a grade will be 
nearly three times the strength of the weakest. To make a structure safe design 
properties must consider the weakest pieces. 

Builders and other wood users often complain that the lumber industry under- 
rates its product. They have reported testing pieces with up to 10 times the design 
strength. The explanation is that the average strengths of Douglas fir, larch and 
hemlock are all nearly five times the design strength. Utility Douglas fir 2 x 4 
is rated at 200 p.s.i. but the strongest pieces exhibit moduli of rupture over 
10,000 p.s.i. Select Structural larch has a working stress of 1900 p.s.i.; its average 
modulus of rupture is 9700 p.s.i. (over 5 times design) ; the maximum strength 
was 16,609 (over 8 times design). 

In stiffness wood rates better because an average is used with no reduction 
factors. However, allowances for seasoning degrade have prevented full benefit 
for dry material so that allowable stiffness values of structural sizes are about 
10 per cent under test values. The maximum stiffness, however, will approach 
or exceed twice the average. 

Having these wide ranges wood can be used more efficiently if a means can 
be developed for measuring the strength properties of every structural piece before 
it is used. 

Grading structural lumber is complicated, although its accuracy is reasonably 
satisfactory, particularly in eliminating weak pieces. Nevertheless a stress grade 
system to take maximum advantage of wood's strength is needed. 

The poor designer who is willing to take time with wood faces a frustrating 
job. He not only has ten to twenty species to consider but he must also select 
from among a number of grade choices. One species has shown as many as forty 
different structural grades in its grade rule book. 

So nondestructive testing looked desirable as a means to permit fuller use of 
strength in strongest pieces and reduce the rating in the weakest. It offers a possi- 
ble means of simplifying the stress grading procedure. It would perhaps reduce 
the number of stress grades necessary among the species. 

Proposed System 

Several years ago I proposed to the management of Potlatch Forests that we 
develop a simple nondestructive bending test at low limits of stress permitting 
a true measurement of stiffness or modulus of elasticity. The test would be made 
quickly and for greater accuracy it was proposed that the test be made with the 
lumber flat rather than on edge. 

179 



When R. J. Hoyle, Jr. joined the Potlatch staff, the possibilities were assigned 
to him. He developed the first machine which has now tested thousands of pieces 
of dimension. This machine can measure the stiffness on 10,000 to 15,000 bd. 
ft. per hour. 

In observing this apparatus I became convinced that there was a close relation- 
ship between modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in commercial lumber. 
If this relationship could be established, then our simple stiffness testers also pro- 
vided a device for establishing a working stress in bending. To check this theory 
we have made tests on over 1200 commercial pieces of structural lumber, in 
four different laboratories. The results confirm my earlier observation on the 
relationship between the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture. 

We are therefore proposing a nondestructive testing system that provides for 
a direct measurement of the modulus of elasticity and an indirect measurement 
of working stress. 

Preliminary Tests with White Fir 

The first check of the E to MOR relationship was made on lowland white fir, 
Abies grandis, which is the principal true fir species of northern Idaho. The 
work was done by A. D. Hofstrand and J. P. Howe, who are members of the 
forestry faculty at the University of Idaho. 

Three hundred pieces of white fir dimension were selected at random from 
two grades and three sizes — 2 x 4, 2 x 6 and 2 x 8 in Construction and Standard 



18000 _ 

16000 _ 

14000. 

12000. 

hJ I0000_ 

CO 

(£ 

8000- 
600CL. 
4000. 
2000 



Sel.Str. Const. Utility 
Modulus of Rupture 



4.0 
35. 
3.0 
2.5, 
2.0. 
1.5 
1.0 
0.8 



Sel.Str. Const. Utility- 
Modulus of Elasticity 



muuuius ui rupture ivioauius or iiaasticity 

Fig. 6. Ranges of two strength properties found in several grades of coast Douglas fir. 
Each bar represents 75 tested samples. 

180 



9000 ■■ 

8000 «- 

^ 7000 - ■ 

fc 6000 

d 

§• 5000 

I 4000 4 

d 

I— I 
d 

^ 3000 

s 

2000. 
1000 ., 



+ 



+ 



■4- 



4 



+ 



1.2 L4> 1.6 1.8 2.0 

Modulus of Elasticity 10 6 P.S.I. 

Fig. 8. — Relationship between modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in white fir 
(Abies grandis) 2 x 6's of two grades, Construction and Standard. 



grades. This arrangement provided fifty pieces per variable. Tests were made with 
third point loading over seven-foot span. Modulus of elasticity was determined 
and modulus of rupture measured for each test specimen. 

Analysis of their data led Hofstrand and Howe to conclude that there is a 
significant relationship between stiffness and modulus of rupture in the material 
they tested. Figure 8 is a simple graph showing average modulus of rupture in 
each of several stiffness classes for the white fir 2 x 6's in two grades. The regres- 
sion line for white fir is shown in Figure 9. 



181 



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182 



Expanded Investigations 

The results of the white fir study encouraged us to extend the study to four 
other woods, namely, western hemlock, larch, and Douglas fir from west of the 
Cascades and Douglas fir from northern Idaho and eastern Washington. The 
studies were conducted at Washington State University and Oregon Forest Re- 
search Center. Dr. B. A. Jayne was in charge at W.S.U. while J. D. Snodgrass 
did the work at OFRC 

Variables were 2x4, 2x6, and 2x10, in each species; grades were Select 
Structural, Construction, and Utility. With twenty-five tests per variable a total 
of 900 specimens were tested. 

Material for each variable was collected at two to four locations and taken to 
the laboratory where it was allowed to condition to about 12 per cent moisture 
content. 

Bending tests were made on the flat faces with 5th point loading over an 80-inch 
span. Rate of loading was adjusted to provide the ASTM rate of strain. 

Most of the analyses of data were done on I.B.M. computers under the super- 
vision of R. J. Hoyle, Assistant Director of Research for Potlatch Forests. 

Regression Equations 

This paper will not include details of the statistical analysis. The results of 
such a study will be available later. The intent of this discussion is merely to 
establish that there is a significant relationship between modulus of elasticity and 
modulus of rupture in commercial lumber. 

Regression equations were determined by the method of least squares assuming 
the data were best fitted by a straight line. Further study of this assumption is 
planned. The regression equations for all five species are illustrated in Figure 9 
which also gives the equations themselves. It must be emphasized that these 
equations do not indicate relative strength properties of the several species. They 
show only the relationship of modulus of rupture to modulus of elasticity. Thus 
the curves merely say that for larch the modulus of rupture at a given modulus 
of elasticity will be higher than for example, white fir. Similarly for any given E, 
hemlock has a higher MOR than coast Douglas fir. 

That this situation exists between species can be further established by deter- 
mining the ratio of modulus of rupture to modulus of elasticity values as shown 
in U.S.D.A. Technical Bulletin #479 for wood at 12 per cent moisture content. 
The ratios are as follows: 

Larch 0695 

Inland Douglas fir 0682 

Western hemlock 0678 

Coast Douglas fir 061 

Grand fir '• 057 

Except for white fir the regression curve positions agree with the above ratios from 
Forest Products Laboratory data obtained from small clear specimens. 

183 



As an additional observation that regression curves do not indicate strength 
the average strength values obtained in these studies are presented in Table 1. 
The averages fall into the expected pattern. 

Correlation Coefficients 

The correlation coefficient is the measure of variability about the regression 
curve. According to Snedecor a correlation coefficient of more than 0.181 with 
this number of samples indicates good correlation or high degree of significance. 
In the relationship between E and R within the species the coefficient of correla- 
tion for all five woods tested indicates a strong relationship between E and MOR. 
The coefficients of correlation are: 

Coast Douglas fir. 0.787 

White fir (Abies grandis) 0.748 

Western hemlock 0.744 

Inland Douglas fir n 0.725 

Western larch 0.704 

These coefficients squared indicate that approximately 50 per cent of the vari- 
ability of strength is accounted for by modulus of elasticity. 

Proposed Strength Classification 

Modulus of elasticity is the property being measured. Therefore it is logical 
to designate the strength groups or grades by that property. Also the use of an 
"E" designation instead of "f" provides that machine graded material will not be 
confused with visually graded lumber which is designated by stress or "f value. 
The spread of E in each proposed class was arranged to give approximately 
an equal amount of material in each class or grade. Four hundred fifty specimens 
were sorted by E's ranging from 1,050,000 to over 3,000,000 p.s.i. Arranging 
this material into six grades would provide for about 75 per group which gave 
the following groupings based on modulus of elasticity: 

E Designation Range of Modulus of Elasticity 

in Each Grade 
Million p.s.i. 
1 - 1 1.05—1.35 

1A 1.35—1.55 

16 1.55—1.75 

1 - 8 1.75—1.95 

2 -° 1.95—2.35 

2A 2.35 and higher 

The species tested were the more common structural ones whose moduli of elasticity 
don't go below 1,000,000 p.s.i. To provide for other species, however, the 
group 750,000 to 1,050,000 p.s.i. has been added in Table 2. Values below 
the 750,000 p.s.i. at present seem too low to consider for structural purposes. 

Strength values for each E class were established by applying a reduction factor 
to a modulus of rupture value obtained from the regression curve in each E class. 
184 



TABLE 1. Averages of moduli of rupture and elasticity for combined grades 
and sizes in each species. 



MODULUS OF 
RUPTURE 



MODULUS OF 
ELASTICITY 



p.S.i. p.S.l. 

Inland Douglas fir 7100 1,662,000 

Larch 8475 1,837,000 

Grand fir* 6250 1,620,000 

Western hemlock 7350 1,792,000 

Coast Douglas fir 7500 1,984,000 

* Adjusted to 12%. Other species tested at 12%. 

The lowest point on the curve in each E class was used. For example, in the 
E class 1.4 of inland Douglas fir, the modulus of rupture value at E of 1,350,000 
p.s.i. is used. Reference to Figure 10 shows the MOR for that E is 5400 p.s.i. 
The reduction factor is the same that has traditionally been used in developing 
basic stresses for lumber. This factor provides for the following: 

% for variation 

% for long time loading 

% for accidental overload 
The product of these three factors is 0.3. The factor of % for load duration 
presumes full design load for an infinitely long period. Modern practice, how- 
ever, leans toward three year loading for working stress determinations, thereby 
permitting a 10 per cent increase. Consequently a net reduction factor of 0.33 
or y 3 results. 

Design stresses are obtained by determining modulus of rupture from the 
regression line and applying the % reduction factor. Suggested working stresses 
obtained in this manner are presented in Table 2. This table and the nondestruc- 



TABLE 2. Suggested working stresses for "normal loading" (three years at full 
design load) of dimension lumber sorted into E classes by non- 
destructive testing. 









WORKING STRESSES (f) 




E CLASS 


E RANGE 












Inland 




Grand 


Western 






D.Fir 


Larch 


Fir 


Hemlock 


10 6 p.s.i. 


10 6 p.s.i. 


p.s.i. 


p.s.i. 


p.s.i. 


p.s.i. 


0.8 


0.75-1.05 


650 


750 


600 


500 


1.1 


1.05-1.35 


1200 


1300 


1150 


1000 


1.4 


1.35-1.55 


1800 


1900 


1650 


1600 


1.6 


1.55-1.75 


2150 


2250 


2000 


2000 


1.8 


1.75-1.95 


2500 


2650 


2400 


2350 


2.0 


1.95-2.35 


2850 


3000 


2750 


2650 


2.4 


2.35 and higher 


3600 


3750 


3500 


3450 



185 



12 -- 



10 



8 -- 



2 6 

o 



2 *-- 




1.4 1.6 

Modulus of Elasticity 10 6 P.S.I. 



2,0 



Fig. 10. — Portion of inland Douglas fir regression line divided into E classes. Modulus of 
rupture value to determine working stress for each class is where lower limit of E class 
(dotted lines) crosses regression line. 



tive test for stiffness provide complete stress grading — the stiffness measurement 
replaces the visual grading. 

Coast Douglas fir is not included in Table 2 because the dense grades of coast 
fir were not covered in this study. Before stress values are proposed for coast fir 
dense grades should be added to the data. 

All of the "f" values reported in Table 2 for E classes 1.4 and higher fall 
well below the 90 per cent lower limit for the class. In fact as E increases the 
greater is the distance of "f" below the 90 per cent lower limit for modulus 
of rupture. Thus it is clear that the proposed working stresses are extremely con- 
servative while still making better use of wood's strength than is possible with 
visual inspection. 

In E classes 0.8 and 1.1, the working stress values are higher than the 90 
per cent lower limit. However, in these lower ranges of E the straight line of 
90 per cent lower limit passes through O modulus of rupture. It is obvious that 

186 



even the low stiffness pieces have some strength so the proposed "f" values are 
justified. The use of the suggested working stresses in E classes 0.8 and 1.1 are 
further substantiated by their being less than one-third the lowest test value in 
the case of each species. 

Other systems of establishing working stresses for each stiffness grade and 
species were studied. One was to apply the reduction factors for long time loading 
and accidental overload to the lower 90 per cent limit in each category. This system 
providing reasonable values in the higher E classes, but with the lower 90 per 
cent limit becoming less than zero in the lower classes the method obviously was 
deficient. Values for larch obtained in this manner are compared below with 
values of Table 2: 

E class— 10 6 p.s.i 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 

f derived from 90% lower limit (psi) 400 1150 1700 2400 2850 4000 
f from Table 2 (psi) 750 1300 1900 2250 2650 3000 3750 

Another idea was to apply a small reduction factor to the lowest test value 
modulus of rupture in each E class. The difficulties here were that an irregular 
pattern resulted and also not enough tests have been made in the highest and 
lowest E ranges. The statistical approach as suggested overcomes both of these 
problems. 

It has also been suggested that present f value be retained and derive an E 
value that corresponds. Several stress grades of Douglas fir have f values of 
2100, 1950, 1700, 1450 and 1200 p.s.i. These strengths include reduction by 
a strength ratio due to grade. Testing nondestructively takes care of grade. In 
round numbers then a reduction factor of about l/ 3 rd is applied to the average 
modulus of rupture in deriving working stress. Thus if each of the f values is 
multiplied by 3 and the corresponding E value determined from the regression 
curve the values obtained for inland Douglas fir will be: 

f (p.s.i.) 1950 1700 1450 1200 

E (10 6 p.s.i.) 1.40 1.32 1.16 1.04 

Introducing some higher values for f the system could be extended as shown here: 

f (p.s.i.) 3600 3300 3000 2700 2400 

E(10 6 p.s.i.) 2.36 2.17 2.00 1.84 1.68 

This proposal, made by R. J. Hoyle, Jr., could be simplified by taking uniform 
increments of stress. It would be readily used by architects, engineers and de- 
signers. Its principal advantage is higher stress values in relation to stiffness. 
For example, for E class of 1.4 this method gives 1950 p.s.i. whereas the system 
proposed in Table 2 gives 1900 p.s.i. However, the system in Table 2 has some 
advantage because it establishes grades or classes on the basis of the property 
actually being measured. Also, as previously mentioned, when a nondestructive 
test is recognized there will still be many years during which both visual grading 
and machine grading will be used — there will be less confusion between the 
systems if the older continues with its "f" designation and the newer uses 
"E" classes. 

187 



Application of the Nondestructive Testing System 

It had been hoped that the relationship of E to MOR in structural pieces would 
be sufficiently uniform that species variations would be insignificant. With such 
a situation one table of two columns would have provided designers with neces- 
sary stiffness and bending stresses. At least at present, unfortunately, it appears 
that species tables will be required. Nevertheless, beam, column and truss design 
data for stiffness and bending can be reduced to one table, to replace the five 
pages now required in F.H.A.'s "Minimum Property Standards" to show design 
values for all the grades and species produced in U.S.A. 

Final grading authority rests with the regional lumber associations. Before 
any nondestructive system is adopted, regional lumber association grading com- 
mittees will have to consider nondestructive testing. Among other items, they 
should investigate the number of proposed classes to determine whether more or 
less classes should be adopted and also establish the suitability of the ranges 
proposed. 

Moisture Content Relations 

Most studies of nondestructive testing have become concerned with the influence 
of moisture content of the lumber on the results of the test. Wood technologists 
recognize that as the moisture content is reduced below the fiber saturation point 
wood becomes stronger. However, these comparisons are made between pieces 
of the same size at different moisture contents. But what happens to a floor joist, 
for example, or any one piece of wood as it dries? It shrinks. Thus although a 
segment of a given size is stronger at 12 per cent m.c. than an equal segment at 
20 per cent m.c, the shrinkage in the piece, reducing the section modulus, largely 
compensates for strength changes due to moisture content. 

After numerous tests the P.F.I, staff concluded that a 2 x 8 surfaced at 20 
per cent moisture content would bend under load about the same amount that 
it would deflect under the same load after drying to 12 per cent m.c. The relation- 
ship is explained by the large effect depth of a beam has on deflection. Under 
uniformly distributed loads, the type mostly used in design, the deflection varies 
inversely as the third power of the depth. 

We therefore believe that the stiffness of a piece of lumber surfaced at 19 
per cent will yield about the same computed or design deflection as from the 
same piece when dry, if the designer provides for standard dimensions. The mill 
surfaces at 19 per cent to 7%", in service after drying to 11 per cent the piece 
may be only 7%". The engineer, however, has computed his values at 7%" 
depth so the E measured at 7%" and 19 per cent m.c. should be used. 

Flat vs. Edge Tests 

It was necessary to know how well flat tests represented the stiffness of pieces 
on edge such as when dimension lumber is used as floor joists. Previous tests 
by U. S. Forest Products Laboratory revealed that flat testing gave about 5 per cent 
higher stiffness values than edgewise testing. 

188 



To measure influence of knot placement 100 pieces of 2 x 8 white fir were 
subjected to bending tests flat and on edge. Each piece was tested in both direc- 
tions below the proportional limit so that a direct comparison of stiffness in the 
two directions was made on the same piece. A regression equation was computed 
from these data to compare modulus of elasticity flat and on edge. The regres- 
sion line is shown in Figure 11. The figure shows that in the lower ranges of 
stiffness the values are about the same but at higher E's the stiffness flat increases 
to 10 per cent or more than on edge. However, other tests showed a closer 
correlation between E and MOR when tested flat than when tested on edge. 

In order to provide for these variations the designated stiffness values in Table 2 
are only 50,000 p.s.i. above the lowest value in the E range of each class. Thus 
in most classes the designated E value is at the lowest quarter point of the range, 
whereas standard practice has been to use average E which would correspond 
with midpoint of the E range. 

The proposed design values for stiffness, that is the class designations, are 
therefore conservative in light of past or current practices. 

Conclusions 

A nondestructive testing system is proposed that provides a direct measure- 
ment of modulus of elasticity. The data show that modulus of rupture is related 
to stiffness, consequently working stresses in bending can be determined with a 
stiffness test. 



1.8 



w 

c 
o 

TJ 1.6 



w (.4 



.a 1.2 



1.0. . 



Y=0.30 + 0.74 x 



4 1-6 1-8 2.0 2.2 



1.0 12 

Modulus of Elasticity, 1CP P.S.I. , Tested Flat 

Fig. 11.— Relationship of moduli of elasticity between flat and edgewise testing of white 
fir (Abies grandis) dimension lumber. 

189 



The proposed system provides for stiffness variations between flat and edge 
testing by using a low value for each E class. 

Dimensional changes compensate for influence of moisture change on strength 
properties, so no allowance for moisture content is needed. 

Stiffness measurement discloses density differences therefore no visual observa- 
tion for density is required. 

The values of f may some day be measured with greater precision, but it is 
questionable that lumber manufacturers and dealers can stand a precise system 
with all the grades that might thereby develop. Therefore this proposed system 
answers a need for nondestructive testing and reduces variability within grades 
to only a fraction of present systems. It therefore should be given practical appli- 
cation now. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Anon. I960. "Basic Materials Battle for Home-Building Market." Busi- 
ness Week, June: 140. 

2. Anon. 1957. Lumber Industry Facts. National Lumber Manufacturers 
Association. 

3. Anon. 1959. Preliminary Forest Statistics for Southwest Arkansas Counties. 
Southern Forest Experiment Station. 

4. Anon. 1959. Wood Handbook. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Handbook No. 72. 

5. Dewey, John. 1961. "The Fabulous Fifteen Years Ahead." The Kiplinger 
Magazine XV (1) 7-21. 

6. Goldfield, Edwin D. i960. Statistical Abstracts of the United States, 81st 
edition. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 

7. Markwardt, L. J. and Wilson, T. R. C. 1935. Strength and Related Proper- 
ties of Woods Grown in the United States. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bui. No. 479. 

8. McKean, Herbert B. and Smith, John W. 1958. "Pilot Planting Laminated 
2 x 4's." Forest Products Journal, VIII (8) : 19A-22A. 

9. Snedecor, George W. 1956. Statistical Methods, 5th Edition. The Iowa 
State College Press. 



190 



Product Promotion and Marketing 



Arthur Lahey 

Product Planning Department 

Weyerhaeuser Company 



Let's look ahead. It's 1970 and you're in a reflective mood as you sit in your 
office. You've been going over some reports that forecast the future and you 
can't help but wonder: "where are we heading and how fast?" 

You glance at the figures again: there are 62 million households in the nation 
today. Ten years ago, that figure was some 50 million. The new figure is 50 
per cent more than 1950. 

The same for population: 185 million in 1961, and 240 million in 1970. 

Because of this, America's gross national product figures will soon be double 
the mid-century figure. 

You scan more figures: high school population has doubled and the number 
of persons over sixty-five years old has increased 75 per cent. You wonder what 
this will do to your business. You think back over the changes in the last ten years. 

Retirement housing for one thing. In 1961 the lumber industry was just 
beginning in this field. Now, with the increase in older persons, it's a big business. 

In the last ten years, too, families have "traded up" to better houses. In 1961, 
trading an old house for a new one— like autos— was just a twinkle in the real 
estate agent's eye. Now it's commonplace. So are standard house models for 
various family units, removable walls, year-round climate control and new styles 
of furniture. 

The forest products industry isn't the only industry that's been hit by this 
change. You have but to glance out the window to see change reflected everywhere. 

You're living in a sophisticated age of super-luxury now and giant retailing 
has taken over. The department store of ten years ago has dissolved into nation- 
wide shopping center chains. Internal competition with your own products is 
a big thing now ... and even the salesman of 1961— outdated by pre-selling— 
has changed into a business consultant. 

A helicopter drifts by your window — now a common way of mass transit 
reaching into suburbia. Stores revolve around customers who shop via push- 
button controls or electronic ordering systems right in their homes. Merchandise 
—already price-marked electronically— arrives at the retail store on its own shelf 
or fixture. Store window displays are TV screens controlled from a central point. 

There have been changes, too, in product marketing and promotion. When 
you think back, you realize this field was just in its infancy in 1961. 

Twilight descends on the city outside your window and the lights begin to 
come on. You grow nostalgic as you think back to the early part of the century. 
Today's concept of marketing and promotion was unheard of then ... but then 
so were a lot of the common-place management functions of today. 

191 



You remember your early days in what was then just "the lumber business." 
The sawmill gangs worked ten and twelve-hour days, six days a week and even 
then couldn't keep up with a growing America's demand for lumber. No one 
had time to even think about new products, much less promoting them. They 
had their hands full filling orders. 

Some of the historical facts about the lumber business come out of the past 
and flash by your mind: Lumber was the first industry in this country. Settlers cut 

the forests to meet the needs of just about the whole gamut of our civilization 

roads, containers, homes, sidewalks, curbstones, wagons and ships. Lumber prod- 
ucts were the colonies' first export . . . panels for prefabricated houses were ex- 
ported from the colony of Virginia during the 1700's. In 1800, the population 
was a little over five million and lumber was selling for about $8.00 per thousand 
board feet. By 1900, lumber production was up to 35 billion feet. Lumber hit 
its peak production of 441/ 2 billion feet in 1909. 

The original extent of the virgin American forest was so vast, the supply of 
trees so great, that at first only the best trees were cut and only the best parts 
of these best trees were converted into lumber. As the demand broadened and 
the limits of the supply could be measured, more and more of the tree was utilized. 
Lower grades of lumber were made and used, and the volume of wood for pulp and 
paper grew by leaps and bounds. 

New paper mills popped up in the south and the west — and developed new 
markets by using certain species of trees and by-products of others. Fortunately, 
some companies showed real foresight and realized that timber was a crop that 
had to be harvested and replanted like any other crop. But it wasn't until the 
demand for lumber slowed down in the mid-30's that anyone had time to think 
about new uses of wood. And even then the new demand caused by World War 
Two hampered things — although it proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that 
wood was a prime necessity. 

Some companies had foresight in another field, too — that of research. Chemists 
were put to work to unlock the hidden secrets in the trees and the war both 
hampered and helped this field. It was about this time, too, that today's concept 
of marketing took form because, with science developing unthought of by-products 
from wood, somebody had to tell the world about them. So promotion became 
a specialty — and all the other facets of marketing were not far behind when you 
realized it did no good to produce a product unless there was a need for it. 

It's hard to pinpoint when all this started. 

The Forest Products Laboratory was founded in 1910 but widespread interest 
in research didn't grow until the thirties and forties. 

The general principles of restocking the forest were practiced following World 
War One but it wasn't until 1941 that the first Tree Farm was established. 

Marketing and promotion were practiced in other industries long before the 
lumber industry found need for them. Actually, developers of the new by-products 
of the wood industry have made more use of them than lumber manufacturers— 
192 



but again, the demand for lumber was such that there was little need to think 
about new markets. 

We gather at this symposium on April 13th, 1961, in a year that may well 
mark the turning point for that vague subject we term "marketing." It is note- 
worthy that this symposium, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the State 
University College of Forestry at Syracuse University, has gathered to discuss— 
among other things— the "Challenges of New Wood Uses." It is significant, too, 
that this symposium is devoted to an effort to unlocking the future, to detailing 
the challenges that face the forestry and forest products industries. 

It takes but a glance at the past history of this institution of higher learning 
to see that such a symposium is only in keeping with the intellectual standards 
maintained here. It is appropriate that marketing be among the subjects to 
receive the serious attention that this symposium will accord it. 

Actually, marketing is a term that is relatively new to our industry and, as 
with all new terms, is frequently misunderstood. So let's pause a moment for a 
few definitions. 

First, markets: "A market is an institution designed to facilitate the transfer 
of legal rights and titles to ownership in goods, services and properties." A bit 
technical perhaps. Let's try a simpler one: "Markets are people with purchasing 
power." 

Then, marketing: Marketing is the working together of the entire organization 
(research, engineering, production and marketing) to determine what the cus- 
tomer wants, how best to produce it, how to motivate its sale and how to deliver it. 

It is based on two fundamental principles: first, customer orientation, and 
second, functional integration of all operating activities. Information must move 
from the customer — determining what he wants, back to the customer — deliver- 
ing what he needs. 

This procedure is designed to insure that when we sit down to help him buy, 
we will have products that serve his needs and desires, are pre-sold by advertising, 
are available in the quantities he wants, when he wants them, and are backed 
up by the service he knows and trusts. 

That kind of ready-to-buy customers is the reason for any good marketing plan. 

One authority in the marketing field lists seven basic functions of marketing 
and since they fit the forest products industry fairly well, let's run a quick check 
of them: 

First is Market Research, the information center for marketing management. 

Second — Product Planning, to take the knowledge of the customer and change 
it into saleable, profitable products. 

Third — Advertising and Sales Promotion. This function is to inform, educate, 
and pre-sell the customer so that our personal selling efforts are more effective. 
We'll give this phase, promotion, more attention later on. 

Fourth — Sales, is to provide the personal contact that converts marketing efforts 
into orders. 

193 



Fifth is Product Service — This function is to prevent customers from being 
ex-customers by servicing what we sell. 

Sixth — Marketing Administration, is necessary to make the product available 
in the quantities the customer wants in locations that permit prompt delivery. 

And seventh — Marketing Personnel Development, simply means we must pro- 
vide the right people, at the right time, to perform the marketing function . 

Some of these functions are self-explanatory, so we'll concentrate today on 
those that have special application to the forest products industry. 

One of the main results of good marketing can be summed up as "getting the 
public to accept fully and continually a new product and to keep existing products 
appealing to the public." 

This requires all the functions of marketing and all the necessary investment 
in the market. With a new product it means learning what the customer wants 
or needs, making certain it can be produced and sold and then being sure that 
the ultimate product meets the demand. And when you speak of the customer 
in this field, the term is all inclusive: before you reach the homeowner, there's 
the distributor, the dealer, the architect, the builder, the code authorities and 
other related specifiers. 

An adjunct to this subject is that of creating consumer preference for your 
product over that of your competition. Industry-wide, this means convincing 
people that wood products are better than non-wood products for construction. 
Within the industry, it involves convincing "those convinced that wood is best" 
that your wood product is best of all wood products. 

Let's assume, now, that we are developing and maintaining our wood products 
in a superior manner and that we have created an excellent demand for them. 
We must then turn to our next marketing principle, that of getting the product 
to the market place. This requires that the dealer be interested in stocking our 
product so he becomes a focal point of giving practical application to the prin- 
ciple. It also brings up the question of distribution and transportation and the 
dealer's inventory. 

As an industry, the distribution of our lumber and plywood is a complicated 
process. We not only manufacture a great variety of items, but do so at a number 
of locations. Then we seek to distribute them efficiently all over the nation. 
Toward this end some firms are experimenting with the rapid processing of the 
necessary information by electronic computers to develop means of giving faster 
and better service to the dealer and ultimately the customer. 

In similar fashion, the cost of maintaining heavy inventories with all the 
variety of items available, is becoming prohibitive to most dealers. Our industry 
is now providing certain strategically located wholesale facilities where they pick 
up small orders of unusual, or even standard items on short notice, rather than 
wait for a direct shipment from a mill. 

Thus, by making it easier for the dealer to handle our product, he's in a better 
position, and mood, to move it on to the ultimate consumer. 

194 



Another marketing function we should look at is sales or personal selling, 
letting the world know that we have been successful in getting our efforts to the 
market place. Personal selling, of course, is a matter of communications and 
includes advertising, sales promotion, trade promotion, direct mail — all of which 
are inter-related. 

This business of influencing the ultimate consumer is a major phase, the pro- 
motional phase of marketing, so let's glance at some of the basic principles of 
promotion for a moment. 

Of the important phases of marketing, promotion is the phase in which the 
wood industry was the least active. Most lumber manufacturers expected the 
man who handled the finished product to promote wood, and this man, in turn, 
felt it was up to the manufacturer. As a result, wood went relatively unpromoted 
and competitors had a field day advertising that their non-wood products didn't 
rot, split, burn or require paint. 

Actually, it's a credit to wood that it remained unchallenged for so long, and 
it hasn't been until recent years that markets for wood slowly and surely began 
to dwindle. And more recently, competitive materials have been promoted to such 
an extent that they have infiltrated volume markets for lumber and wood products 
in areas where wood is the definitely superior material. 

The giant is beginning to stir, however, and we find some members of the 
industry beginning to strike back. Our competitors, trading heavily on isolated 
problems with wood, have carefully avoided mentioning the shortcomings of 
their own products. 

For instance, the same moisture that can cause decay in wood, presents a serious 
rust problem for steel and causes bricks and masonry blocks to gradually deteri- 
orate and crumble. Aluminum pits in the presence of salt air, dents easily when 
used as siding, has little structural rigidity for windows and— despite advertising 
claims — is one of the best conductors of heat and cold that we know. 

The first stirrings of the giant were those of individual members of the wood 
industry. As individual firms saw the value of product promotion, they began 
to form regional groups and associations to augment the work of individual 
companies. 

Credit should be given these individual companies and the regional organiza- 
tions they formed, for they laid the groundwork, with their regional and national 
advertising programs, for a vast, nation-wide campaign. 

They realized that a coordinated, national effort was necessary and asked the 
National Lumber Manufacturers Association, which represented the industry in 
the United States, to take over the job. NLMA, with its sixteen federated regional 
and wood-species associations, organized a total campaign to sell the consuming 
public on the concept of using all of the many lumber and wood products. NLMA 
argued that this type of promotion was desperately needed if the industry was 
to survive the pressures of competitive forces — and set out to convince the indus- 
try that a total program was needed. 

195 



The industry was convinced and the National Wood Promotion program was 
launched in January, 1959. The campaign was aimed at five segments of the 
nation's economy that influence the use of wood: consumers, builders, architects 
and engineers, school officials, and lumber distributors and allied groups. 

The program began to advertise in national magazines, as well as magazines 
limited to the building trades specialties ; focused general attention on important 
items of wood use such as basic structures, floors, windows, furniture and doors. 
They showed how new wood applications and the laminated arches and beams 
can be used to give beauty to schools, churches and commercial buildings — and 
at the same time cut costs. 

To this was added extensive publicity featuring lumber and wood products 
aimed directly at the consumer. Information included how to use lumber, how 
to buy it and how to work with it. Architects and engineers were informed of 
the freedom of design permitted with wood, and that wood, and only wood, 
offered variety, strength, beauty and workability. At the same time, a technical 
field staff began making regular contacts with engineers and architects all over 
the country to give them the latest information on the uses and qualities of wood. 
Builders and contractors were advised that they could build more house for 
the money with wood. School officials were advised of the advantages of building 
schools with wood and lumber dealers were offered information and cooperation 
to help them sell more lumber. 

A technical services division was set up to reawaken the interest of designers, 
specifiers, code agencies and bulk consumers in lumber and wood products. This 
is being done through an aggressive program of field contacts plus the develop- 
ment of new and vital technical data and the preparation and distribution of 
technical literature. 

The division's building code staff works toward development of improved 
building codes and a fire insurance staff has concentrated on the revisions of rate 
inequities that tend to discourage the use of wood in some structures. 

The association is always alert to tell the public about any outstanding proofs 
that wood is best for construction purposes. A recent case that comes to mind 
is the news report of the damage caused by Hurricane Donna in Florida. 

Frame buildings on sturdy foundations, with properly braced and tied roofs 
and walls, withstood hurricane damage most successfully. Rigid, concrete block 
houses frequently were blown down. Key West Building Inspector Ray Knopp 
had this comment: "After twenty-nine years in the construction business in the 
Keys, and ten years as a building official of Key West, I recommend wood-frame 
or pole-type construction built at least three feet above ground in all exposed 
areas of the Florida Keys. I make this recommendation after observing storm 
damage, both wind and water, not only from Hurricane Donna, but from every 
blow we've had for the last twenty-nine years." 

While it's still too early to say how effective this program has been since it 
was started two years ago, there are some signs that are encouraging. Housing 
starts in the first ten months of I960 were off 18 per cent— but lumber shipments 
196 



were off only six per cent. Compare these figures with some of the industry's 
competitors— brick was off more than 10 per cent and aluminum was off 12 
per cent. 

Because the results are encouraging, the program expanded. Meanwhile, other 
regional and trade associations are adding their own efforts to the total program. 
Organizations such as the West Coast Lumbermen's Association, Southern Pine 
Association and California Redwood Association all have carried on active pro- 
motional campaigns and will continue to do so. In the field of plywood, the 
Douglas Fir Plywood Association devotes all of its time promoting plywood and 
has been responsible for a large increase in the use of plywood by such campaigns 
as the nationally-circulated ads that stated that "every family needs two homes 
. . . one for the work- week and the other for pure pleasure." 

In the field of education, American Forest Products Industries promotes scien- 
tific forest management through the Keep America Green Program and the Ameri- 
can Tree Farm System, and collects and disseminates information about forest 
industries. 

This is the total picture — and it's impressive: a combination of regional and 
national associations that are aggressively promoting the use of wood and wood 
products through all the means at their disposal. And back of them all, serving 
as the foundation and f ountainhead of the promotional program, are the individual 
companies who pioneered the plan. 

Much remains to be done, however. We are only just beginning to more 
effectively market our products. And we will have new products to work on as 
new developments give us a stronger competitive hold on the market place. 

End and edge-glued lumber is providing the building industry with boards 
of any length and width. Laminated beams and arches are opening up entirely 
new fields. Right at this moment, a laminated wood tower stands near Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, as one of a series of towers being tested by General Electric 
in an experimental model of extra high voltage. If this wooden tower proves 
that it can carry electrical transmission lines across our nation, a whole new market 
will be opened. 

An aggressive industry is constantly producing new lumber products as part 
of the answer to increased competition. Let's quickly list some of them: 
Factory-primed and factory pre-finished wood products ; 
Maintenance-free woods for interiors that only need be installed and wiped 

clean; 
Continuing advancements in the diversified products field — utilizing residue 

from primary wood products to make hardboards and particle boards ; 
The myriad of products in the packaging, container and fiber field ; 
Component building parts — lumber pre-cut to specified sizes to reduce field 

labor. 
Pre-fab construction of buildings further reduces field labor. 
Panelization, which is the use of moveable panels as room dividers. Many 
of these, incidentally, have the added advantage of bearing heavy loads ; 

197 



And, of course, there are a host of research activities in the field of chemical 
utilization. Many current applications of wood are made possible by mod- 
ern chemical treatments which fortify lumber against insects, decay, tropi- 
cal fungus, vermin, fire, shrinkage and swelling. 
And a final note of progress in the automobile age; horseshoes are now 
made of impregnated wood-pulp paper, laminated with powerful adhesive. 

In many cases, markets for these new products don't exist as yet. There are 
practical uses for them but it's up to us to demonstrate their value so that the 
potential customer will come to know them and demand them. 

To take full advantage of these opportunities to market new and better prod- 
ucts, the industry will have to increase its efforts in marketing, even while main- 
taining a continuing marketing program for our present products. 

The forest products industry will have to make even greater efforts, even 
larger investments in marketing, not only to regain the advantage we once held 
but to place our new products on the market place for all possible users to know. 

We have the tools available to do a good marketing job. Some members of 
our industry are already using them to good advantage. But we must learn to do 
a better marketing job and each individual member of the industry, as well as 
every organization in the industry, must make a positive effort in this giant, 
coordinated campaign to be sure that no new markets are lost. 

Right now we have reached a temporary lull in the demands on our products. 
Perhaps this is good for two reasons: it makes us realize that competition is 
present and must be met— and it gives us time to plan the attack. Within the 
next five years the crop of World War Two babies will be moving out from 
family homes and this new generation will crowd the market place. 

It's up to the forest products industry to gear itself now so that when this 
demand hits we'll be properly prepared to advise it, to service it and to supply it. 

We can be sure that our present research will pay off and— with proper emphasis 
given to marketing— the industry will pace the growth of the nation. 

In two respects we are extremely fortunate: this program must be carried out 
by people, and we have the capable people who can do the job. 

We've come a long way from the early days of the industry and the concept 
that a forest was something to be abandoned after it was cut and turned into 
lumber. We've learned to reforest the area after the harvest, and we've learned 
to utilize each tree for all the different and varied products we can get from it. 
And in learning this we've also learned that to properly use the forest we have 
to market it. We have to learn of new and improved products that the public 
wants and will use. Then we have to produce the product, promote it, sell it and 
service it. 

We are doing this, in increasing amounts each year. We have the capable 
people to do this vital job. Somehow, our industry, our country, always manages 
to come up with the men with the know-how when it's needed. 

There were far-sighted men in 1900 who saw that we might someday run 
out of forests unless we planted new trees. There were the practical men who 
198 



realized that each tree could be utilized more than it was and they joined with 
the scientist who unlocked new uses for the forests. 

Each challenge provided the men of stature who rose to meet it, with each 
success again demonstrating that American ingenuity and the free enterprise 
system is and will continue to be the world's best economic system. 

Today, the challenge is marketing. The tools are available to do the job, the 
investment required is recognized and men of stature are rising to meet this 
new challenge. 



199 



PART SIX 



CHALLENGES IN 
FIBERS AND MOLECULES 



Pulping Around the World 

Frank T. Peterson 

President 

The Black-Clawson Company 



Metaphorically speaking, I believe we can truly say that we live today in a cellulose 
world. In presenting to you observations on the very broad theme of "Pulping 
Around the World," I feel that I must preface these remarks with two basic 
economic concepts. 

First, today's economic renaissance throughout the world demonstrates more 
and more that nations must rely on indigenous raw materials for the production 
of finished goods in order to achieve and maintain economic selfsufficiency. 

Second, the phenomenon we label with the over worked phrase "population 
explosion," coupled with the profound need in many countries for better living 
standards, provides irresistible impetus for the development of the pulp and 
paper industry throughout the world. 

What is the role of pulp and paper in this economic and sociological renais- 
sance? Today, world population is 2,950,000,000. In fifteen years it will reach 
3,800,000,000. The most recent study of world per capita paper consumption 
by the Export Committee of APPA indicates that the percent average per person 
is fifty pounds per year. Since 1954 the growth has been at the rate of one pound 
per year and this rate is expected to accelerate with the spread of culture and 
industrialization to the many under-developed areas of the earth. When we 
multiply the increasing rate of per capita consumption by the predicted growth 
in population, we reach a demand figure for world pulp and paper production 
which staggers the imagination. 

Most of us are familiar with the forces that make our industry grow. Pulp and 
papermaking is as fundamental to civilization as agriculture. It is the basic medium 
for the dissemination of knowledge and the creation of literature. It serves the 
cause of better teaching in the all important efforts to eliminate illiteracy and 
raise standards of living in so many underprivileged areas. It provides the instru- 
ment for recording history, for economic and political communication, and for 
packaging most of our food products and manufactured goods. The uses and 
contributions of paper are interminable. 

Since I will attempt to a degree to deal with advancements in technology, I 
think it is altogether appropriate and deserving that we pay tribute to the men 
and facilities of the College of Forestry of Syracuse University and the impressive 
contributions they have made to the technology of pulp and paper making. Our 
entire industry is based on the abilities and the capacity of the men trained in 
institutions such as this. As industrialists we support you, we encourage you, we 
rely upon you, and I offer the industry's deep and heartfelt gratitude for the 

203 



work that you do here. The engineers, technicians and scientists you have trained 
and your contributions in research and development and the ferreting out of new 
processes not only advance our industry and the economic welfare and culture 
of our civilization but also insure in no small way the continued existence of the 
United States of America as a formidable industrial state in the world of free 
nations. 

In our race for technical superiority throughout the world, we as a nation shall 
run behind if we do not support pulp and paper personnel training and research 
as carried on in technical institutions like yours. We shall fail miserably if these 
institutions do not continue to expand their function of supplying the specialized 
manpower our industry needs. Contrary to popular emotions, pulp and paper- 
making is not an art — it is a science, an exact science that grows more exacting 
every day and requires the highest caliber technicians and scientists. 

Now let us examine pulping progress around the world in the light of our first 
concept: namely, that each nation must depend to a great extent on the utilization 
of its indigenous raw materials. 

Throughout the world the trends in established manufacture of pulp and in 
today's new pulping developments support this concept. The pendulum of history 
swings from the production of the first papers from mulberry and papyrus to 
the use in more recent decades of wood fiber as the predominant raw material, 
and now, on the back-swing, to the resurgence of agricultural fiber pulping. One 
of the earliest sources of paper fiber was bamboo. Today, bamboo is once again 
a leading raw material for the papermaking industry of India and other east Asian 
countries. Several varieties of bamboo are also being employed in Latin America. 
Although approximately 85% of all papers are still being made from wood fibers, 
the advance of agricultural fibers toward a rank of increasing importance is a 
significant and undeniable global trend. 

The swing of the pendulum is also evident in the history of hardwood pulping. 
The earliest chemical pulping by the original soda process was conducted on 
willow and poplar hardwoods. However, as chemical pulping continued to de- 
velop, it was directed mainly toward softwood utilization. So the trend continued 
for many years until the fairly recent revival of hardwood chemical pulping, 
about which more will be said in a moment. 

NORTH AMERICA 

In a brief round-the-world survey of raw materials for the industry, let us 
first take North America, or more accurately, Canada and the United States. We 
have three prime raw materials which will be the mainstay of our pulping in 
the foreseeable future. These are softwoods, hardwoods and waste paper. Waste 
paper, of course, is the continuing offspring of the prime sources. 

With the fast maturity growth of pine in the southern United States and steady 
progress in intelligent farming and harvesting of these woods, we should have 
little cause for immediate concern in this area. In Canada and the Pacific north- 
west, abundant softwood timber supplies are expected to prevail in moderately 

204 



stable productivity. Inasmuch as wood shall remain our prime and predominate 
source of raw material, we can predict the U. S. and Canadian research in pulping 
processes will be mainly directed to improved methods of utilizing this traditional 
source of supply. 

In New England and the Lakes States of this country, we can point to a rela- 
tively small but continuing revival in wood pulping since the low period of the 
'30's when the general recession and depletion of available softwoods combined 
to shut down many mills. In large part, the revival has come through increased 
utilization of the hardwoods native to the regions. This development would not 
have been possible without the research efforts of Government laboratories, paper 
companies, machinery and chemical suppliers, and university laboratories, like 
those at Syracuse. New pulping techniques emerging from these efforts have 
made hardwood utilization a prime, and now commonplace, source of papermak- 
ing fiber. 

Pulpwood consumption statistics as compiled by the U. S. Bureau of Census 
emphasize the growing importance of hardwoods. In the period 1952-59, while 
annual softwood consumption in the North Central region dropped from 2.0 
million cords to 1.8 million, hardwood consumption rose from 0.9 million to 
2.0 million, overcoming the softwood loss and adding a million cords to the 
total consumption. Although not as pronounced, the trend is the same in the 
Northeastern States. 

Hardwoods have played an equally important role in the rapid growth of 
pulping in general in the Southern States. The South now produces more than 
half of all the hardwood pulp in the U. S. industry. 

Through tireless research, hardwoods are now chemically pulped by the kraft, 
neutral sulphite semi-chemical, cold soda, and modified sulphite processes. Con- 
tributing to the commercial success of these systems are the modern develop- 
ments in continuous processing, which are also attaining increasing acceptance 
for softwood pulping. 

There are still other areas of research contributing to an optimistic outlook for 
the North American wood supply for the next twenty-five years and beyond. 
These are the advancing sciences of forest management and wood genetics. Intelli- 
gent regulation of cutting and reforestration of available woodlands and growing 
enlightenment on the need to open and properly manage restricted woodlands 
will do much to increase our supplies. At the same time, the wood geneticists 
are predicting acceleration of the growth rate for traditional species and even 
selective breeding of modified varieties which will be grown for specific types 
of pulp needed for special paper characteristics. 

WASTE PAPER 

In periods of virgin fiber shortages, the North American industry, especially 
in the United States, makes strong demands on its waste paper supplies. In 1944, 
for instance, secondary fibers from waste paper comprised 36.6 per cent of the 
total fiber consumed. In 1959 the percentage was down to 26.5. This decline 

205 



must be attributed to the rising cost of collecting, distributing, and repulping 
today's waste papers in comparison with the present abundance of primary fibers 
at relatively low prices. However, large tonnages of waste paper continue to be 
consumed — 9,400,000 tons in 1959 in the United States, for instance. 

The long range outlook guarantees increased utilization of waste papers, as the 
inevitable expansion of paper production overtakes the supply of primary fibers. 
It is a rule of thumb that for every 4 lbs. of virgin fiber produced, there will 
be an increase of 1 lb. in the supply of available waste paper. This barometer 
indicates that in the next 15 years the repulping and reuse of waste paper will 
increase another 6,000,000-10,000,000 tons annually. The present 9,000,000 tons 
annual consumption is not a figure to treat lightly. I believe that it is not erroneous 
to prognosticate that the consumption by 1975 will be at least 15,000,000 tons, 
and probably closer to 20,000,000 tons annually. 

This is a fabulous field for specialization and technological advancements. It 
is a field that I believe we, in the industry, have sadly neglected. We treat waste 
paper as a second-rate citizen in the fiber community of the industry. Quite the 
contrary, it is a first-rate citizen that simply needs a bath. 

The problems inherent in the re-use of waste paper are three-fold: a. The 
cleaning or removal of entrained dirt, b. The removal of ink and printing mate- 
rials, c. The removal or dispersion of additives such as plastics and asphalt, etc. 

Classically, waste paper has been utilized in the rougher grades of boxboard 
and such types of papers. With the increased technological development of better 
cleaning methods, and the development of de-inking practices, more and more 
waste paper is going into finer grades such as magazine, printing, lithographic, 
photo-offset, coated paper base stock, etc. 

Therefore, waste paper fiber pulping can basically be classified into two parts : 
1. That to be used in the rougher types of papers and boards, 2. That to be used 
in the finer grades. 

The waste paper fiber to be used in rough papers and boards basically needs 
only cleaning treatment to remove the entrained dirt, plus processes for either 
the dispersion or removal of the plastic type of foreign additives. 

The waste fibers to be utilized for the finer types of papers must undergo 
de-inking, in addition to the dirt and additive removal. 

The equipment manufacturers working in conjunction with the industry, are 
developing to a high grade of efficiency re-pulping and entrained dirt cleaning 
methods. This phase appears to make satisfactory progress. 

We have yet much work to do in formulating processes to either remove or 
disperse the additives such as asphalt, plastics, and similar coatings. Further work 
is also required on better de-inking methods. 

Last but not least, is the necessity for better control of the economics of the 
raw material waste paper fiber sources. The Waste Paper Utilization Council is 
doing much work towards the development of the utilization of better methods 
of collection, classification of wastes into suitable grades for various types of 
papers, and the establishment of standards. 

206 



I believe considerable progress will be made if the industry can create and 
maintain voluntarily enforced standards for precise classification of waste paper 
into various grades comparable to our present classification of virgin pulps. 

I cannot over-emphasize the importance of recognizing waste paper as a major 
source of our papermaking fiber. 

PULPING DEVELOPMENTS 

We must recognize, however, that for many years to come, the North American 
industry will be basically oriented on virgin wood pulp and will direct its major 
energies toward improvements in mechanical and chemical pulping of wood. 

In the broad sense, the pulping processes we have employed in recent decades 
can be classified as sulphite, kraft, semi-chemical, and groundwook. However, 
with the industry's increasing emphasis on research and development, these 
basic processes have come under critical study, and numerous improvements have 
been made. Among these that have lately proved successful are the following: 

1. Modified Sulphite Processes — The traditional calcium base acid sulphite proc- 
ess has undergone important modifications through the application of magnesium, 
or ammonium, or sodium base recovery to the standard system. With the use of 
magnesium bi-sulphite, ammonium bi-sulphite, or sodium bi-sulphite for diges- 
tion, the cooking liquor differs from conventional sulphite in its freedom from 
excess sulphurous acid and thus from excess sulphur dioxide vapor pressure. 
With the elimination of S0 2 many advantages occur: During operation, pulp can 
be cooked faster at higher temperatures with greater control of yield and strength 
at lower operational costs. The system also eliminates problems of stream and 
air pollution through chemical recovery, is adaptable to a variety of hard and 
soft wood species, either single or mixed, permits semi-chemical or full chemical 
operation with a single recovery system, gives higher yield and greater fiber 
strength than the normal acid sulphite process, and allows production of high 
brightness, unbleached and easily bleached pulps. 

All in all, it appears that the several types of bi-sulphite processing will be 
important factors in the future of sulphite pulping in North America. Companies 
engaged in or considering bi-sulphite pulping are showing an increasing interest 
in continuous digestion with its several advantages. Positive displacement type 
digesters, such as the Pandia, can function without hazard on bi-sulphite systems, 
since the danger of escaping sulphur dioxide is not present in these systems. 

2. High-Yield Sulphite — Several mills have worked out a high yield type cook- 
ing based on the traditional acid sulphite process. This is accomplished through 
shorter cooking times with resulting higher hemicellulose and lignin in the cooked 
pulp. The higher yield is remarkable, although the resultant pulp has the inherent 
acid sulphite pulp disadvantage of lower tests in several physical properties, the 
most predominant of which are tearing strength and opacity. For such papers as 
newsprint and other groundwood printing grades this process has successful appli- 
cations and does show promise, although development work must continue. 

207 



3. High-Yield Kraft — The same type of accelerated cooking has been applied 
to the standard kraft process with even greater success than with high yield 
sulphite. Considerable tonnages of high yield kraft are being produced in the 
linerboard mills of southern United States with yields up to 65 per cent. Strength 
development in these pulps, which naturally contain more lignin than fully cooked 
pulps, is obtained in the refining stage. To make the process economical, a balance 
between yield, refining power costs and resultant strengths must be determined 
for each mill. 

It is interesting to note that the development of high yield kraft pulps is not 
limited to the cooking process. The combination of a lower cooking time and 
more effective refining action between the blow tank and the washers has pro- 
duced the major proportion of the gains thus made. 

In the newer systems being installed other advantages have manifested them- 
selves, in addition to yields alone. For example, by refining immediately after 
the blow tank and screening before the washers, a more finely dispersed stock 
is presented to the washer, lending itself to better washing. Equally important 
is the elimination of the foam problem through pressure refining and screening. 
While this system tends to reduce washer capacity somewhat, it has the advantage 
of not having to dilute the stock after the washers for further screening requiring 
the use of post washing thickening apparatus. 

4. Neutral Sulphite Semi-Chemical — Although the neutral sulphite process is 
not new, it is the youngest of our general group and has shown spectacular growth 
in the last twenty years. Much of the research in this field has been directed to 
continuous rather than batch processing with the result of a highly dependable 
low cost system which is extremely well adapted to and has been pointed mainly 
towards the utilization of hardwood species either singly or in mixtures. 

Among its many advantages are: high yield, relatively high brightness in un- 
bleached pulp, bleached pulp strength comparable to softwood sulphite, a high 
stiffness characteristic making these pulps valuable for corrugating medium, rela- 
tively low power requirement for strength development making the pulps adapt- 
able to greaseproof and glassine papers, and relatively lower capital costs than 
for full chemical pulping, which permits construction of smaller plants on an 
economical basis. 

5. Cold Soda Pulping— Since the introduction of modern cold caustic pulping 
by the U. S. Forests Products Laboratory only a little more than ten years ago, 
it has come forward as an extremely versatile, high yield system which promises 
a rapid growth— equal perhaps to that of semi-chemical. It has recently gained 
impetus with the introduction of several systems for continuous operation which 
drastically reduce the time required for impregnation of the chips with the sodium 
hydroxide cooking solution. As in the semi-chemical systems, fiberizing of cold 
soda chips is accomplished mechanically in disc refiners. 

Hardwood cold soda pulps have proven exceptionally suited to the production 
of newsprint and groundwood printing papers, as a substitute for soft.wood- 
208 



groundwood. In one continuous cold soda system, employing the Chemifiner, the 
cold soda pulp can be produced at considerably lower horsepower demand than 
the equivalent tonnage of groundwood. When blended with standard groundwood 
in a newsprint furnish, the presence of cold soda also permits some reduction 
in the full chemical fiber required. 

Cold soda pulps are proving their versatility as furnish in a wide variety of 
other grades of papers and boards, notably foodboard, corrugating medium, and 
tissue grades. 

6. Chemi groundwood Process — This modified groundwood pulping system, per- 
mitting the grinding of Northeastern, dense hardwoods, hardly requires explana- 
tion before a meeting of the New York State College of Forestry. However, just 
for the record, this system utilizes 4 foot logs which are dropped into a large 
pressure vessel where a mild sodium sulphite solution is forced into the wood 
at 150 lbs. hydrostatic pressure, effecting a mild pulping action. The logs are 
thus softened so that they do not create the usual high frictional resistance in the 
grinding process. Grinding horsepower is reduced, the yield and strength of the 
fiber are increased, and a pulp with a high drainage rate results. 

Chemigroundwood is a very bright and specific example of the type of con- 
tribution institutions such as this are making and must continue to make to the 
technology of the industry. 

PULPING OUTSIDE OF NORTH AMERICA 

Let us now review developments in other papermaking countries of the world, 
where the general trend is also toward improved processing and greater utilization 
of the indigenous raw materials. 

In Scandinavia — Norway, Sweden, Finland — and in the Soviet Union, the pre- 
ponderance of northern wood species makes it inevitable that progress in pulping 
follow much the same line as in North America. This is also true of Australia, 
New Zealand, and many other countries where wood is the major source of fiber. 
Much of the growing Latin American industry is already wood based and can 
also be expected to develop after the pattern of North America and northern 
Europe. It will be some years, however, before the many technological and eco- 
nomic problems of utilizing tropical and semi-tropical species are overcome. Never- 
theless, we can look on Latin America as an awakening giant in the world fiber 
economy. 

In round figures, let me present for a sampling of these woodpulp producing 
nations, their existing capacities, percent of increase through currently planned 
expansion, and estimated productivity by 1965 or earlier: 



209 



Current Pulping 

Capacity 

(short tons) 


Planned % 
Increase 


Est. Prod, 
by 1965 


Sweden 4,800,000 

Finland 3, 500,000 

USSR _ 3 ,300,000 

Brazil 400,000 

Mexico 1 70,000 

Japan 2,700,000 

Australia/New Zealand 520,000 


48% 

49% 

118% 

115% 

124% 

74% 

73% 


7,100,000 

5,300,000 

7,200,000 

860,000 

380,000 

4,700,000 

900,000 


15,390,000 


72% 


26,440,000 



OTHER PRIMARY FIBERS 

Although 85 per cent of the present world tonnage of paper is produced from 
wood fibers, only fiber sources have long since proved themselves acceptable as 
raw materials. There is every indication that the use of agricultural fibers and 
other fast growing plants will increase in importance, especially in wood-poor 
countries which are nevertheless determined to establish and maintain a native, 
self-sufficient paper industry. 

Straw 

In Europe, for instance, let us take the example of Holland. Practically devoid 
of timber resources, Holland has held a ranking position as a paper producer 
through intelligent utilization of straw as basic raw material to supplement its 
imported wood pulp. Since the end of World War II great credit in this accom- 
plishment must be given to N. V. Research-en Adviesbureau Voor Stroverwerking, 
which has greatly advanced the technology of straw pulping in Holland. Around 
the world, straw pulping — wheat, rice or rye — promises to grow in importance 
even though the unfavorable economics of its procurement and storage has dimin- 
ished its importance in North America. It is an established raw material in 
Denmark, East Germany, Hungary, Rumania, USSR, England, Argentina, Mexico, 
Japan, and Korea, and forms one basis of planning for the nascent industries of 
Egypt, Indonesia, South Africa. 

In producing straw pulp, several processes apply: 

In early work carried on at the U. S. Dept. of Commerce Research Laboratory 
in Peoria, Illinois, atmospheric cooking of straw under violent mechanical agita- 
tion in the well known Hydrapulper resulted in what is known as the Mechano- 
Chemical process. This has proved quite successful and the first large commercial 
installation was made at the Union Paper Mills in Holland. Straw is introduced 
into a Hydrapulper at approximately 15% consistency and cooked under agitation 
for approximately 40 minutes to one hour with a 10 per cent solution of sodium 
hydroxide. Cooking temperatures of about 190 to 205 degrees Fahrenheit are 
utilized. 

210 



The process produces an extremely high yield (70 to 80 per cent), remarkably 
strong, unbleached pulp with an extremely high pentosan content. 

From the Hydrapulper the lightly cooked straw is introduced directly to a high 
speed refiner where the chemically softened fibers are subjected to intense mechani- 
cal attrition to break up the nodes and straw bundles. The pulp, due to high 
inherent bursting strength and stiffness, has proved very remarkable in the pro- 
duction of corrugating medium. It is also very good for straw boards, used ex- 
tensively in Holland. 

Some mention should probably be made of a remarkable although archaic 
process known as the Marsoni straw pulping system. This basically requires 
laborious pitching of the straw into an open pit in the ground, mixing it with 
slaked lime and allowing it to ferment naturally for a period of ten days or two 
weeks. The straw is then removed from the pit and washed and refined. 

Although becoming outmoded, the rotary type digester is still widely used in 
Holland and other straw-rich countries for both caustic soda and neutral sulphite 
cooking. The cook is relatively long — four or five hours at pressures usually con- 
siderably under 100 lbs. with resulting low temperatures. Most straws have a 
(rather high silica content which creates difficulties in the chemical recovery system. 
This is especially true of rice straw in which the ash content (mostly silica) runs 
as high as 15 per cent. Rice straw mills must therefore be planned without a 
recovery system. 

Straw pulp produced in a batch process is quite easily bleached, and there 
is now some experience in Holland using continuous pulping with the Pandia 
digester to produce bleachable pulps efficiently at yields of 45 to 50 per cent. 
The trend in all new straw mills in Holland or elsewhere is toward continuous 
operations. 

Bagasse 

Even though cereal straws have a long history as raw materials for papermaking, 
the world prospects now favor even greater utilization of other annual and fast 
growing fibers, particularly sugar cane bagasse. A modern problem in straw 
utilization is the high cost of collecting and storing the raw material, particularly 
since the advent in some countries of combine threshing, which leaves the straw 
stalks scattered over the growing fields. Bagasse, on the other hand, accumulates 
in quantity outside of a sugar mill during the grinding seasons and can be used 
directly in the pulp mill or can be readily baled and stored for off-season use. 

The world potential for bagasse pulp is large because of its availability in suit- 
able quantities in so many different geographic areas. The West Indies, Mexico, 
Central America, and most countries of South America grow sugar cane in abun- 
dance. It is a common commodity in Egypt and South Africa, in most of the 
countries of Southeast Asia, in the Philippines and Hawaii, and even in the 
Southern United States where two mills now utilize bagasse for bleached fine 
paper and building board production. A third mill for molded pulp products 
is now projected. 

211 



Bagasse formerly was limited as a papermaking raw material to coarse, un- 
bleached papers and woods because of the high cost of removing dirt and pith 
from the raw stock prior to pulping or bleaching. Recently, however, an economical 
system has been developed combining moist depithing at the sugar mill and 
wet depithing at the pulp mill. This treatment yields a clean, easily pulped and 
bleached fiber suitable for the manufacture of the highest quality white papers. 

The world count of bagasse based mills in operation or in advanced stages of 
construction is high: 

1. Cuba — Three mills, making newsprint, unbleached papers, and bleached 
papers ; total rated capacity 240 tons per day. 

2. Peru — Two mills, making bleached and unbleached papers and cement 
bag paper; total capacity, 175 tons. 

3. Puerto Rico — One mill, producing 300 tons per day of paperboard and 
bag and wrapping papers. 

4. Brazil — Three mills, making writing and printing grades, corrugating 
medium and market pulp; total capacity, 135 tons per day. 

5. Colombia — Two mills for bleached papers and corrugating medium; 
total capacity, 105 tons per day. 

6. India — Five mills, making newsprint and wide range of papers in which 
the bagasse pulp is frequently blended with bamboo pulp; total capacity, 
350 tons per day. 

7. Philippines — Two mills for bleached papers ; total of 85 tons per day. 

8. Argentina — Two mills for coarse papers and bleached fine papers ; total 
capacity, 120 tons. 

9. Mexico — Three mills for tissue grades and bleached market pulp; total 
capacity, 140 tons. 

10. South Africa — One 40 ton mill producing corrugating medium. 

11. Taiwan — One 80 ton market pulp mill furnishing 45% of the total 
pulp consumed in Taiwan in a wide variety of papers. 

12. Egypt — One 60 ton mill now under construction to supply unbleached 
pulp. 

13. Venezuela — One 60 ton mill under construction to integrate with paper 
mill producing wrapping, bag, linerboard, and corrugating medium. 

Bagasse pulp is also in use in building board mills in Hawaii, Australia, and 
England and in hardboard mills in Cuba, Taiwan and Egypt. 

Even in total, these operations represent a relatively small tonnage contribution 
to the world fiber supply. They add up to slightly more than 2000 tons per day— 
about equal to the output of one of our largest Southern kraft mills. Nevertheless, 
they demonstrate the undeniable trend which pulping development will follow 
at an accelerating rate in the newly developing economies of many countries. 

What other agricultural plants and grasses are entering the commercial pulping 
picture? 

212 



Bamboo 

Botanically a perennial grass, bamboo has become a major source of fiber in 
India, China, Japan, Philippines, and other southeast Asia areas. Although dry 
bamboo chips are extremely dense and difficult to penetrate, they respond success- 
fully to modern pulping methods, including the continuous processes, and yield 
a fiber with high tear resistance and moderate bursting strength. 

Especially in India, bamboo pulps are frequently blended with bagasse pulps 
to give a well-balanced pulp suitable for use in a wide range of furnishes. 

Some pulping experts have suggested that bamboo may some day be widely 
cultivated as a fiber crop, perhaps even in the southern United States. 

Esparto 

This North African grass (Lygeum spartum) has been pulped, especially by 
British fine paper mills, since 1861. Until now, however, the raw material was 
bulk shipped at high cost from North African ports to the consuming mills. 
Pulping was accomplished in most instances by the soda process in small batch 
operations in integrated mills, except for two or three small European market 
pulp mills. Over the years, the economics of this procedure have grown less and 
less favorable. Extensive investigations of rapid continuous pulping of esparto 
have recently changed this picture, however. On the basis of trial pulping in the 
Pandia pilot pulp mill in Berlin, N. H., a 90 ton per day pulp mill in now under 
construction in Tunisia to produce bleached esparto pulp for world markets. Other 
esparto growing countries are expressing interest in following this example. 

Reeds 

The delta regions of the Danube and Volga Rivers in southeastern Europe 
produce reeds (Phragmites communis) that are being pulped successfully after 
much research, especially in finding efficient mechanical means for harvesting 
them. It is estimated that in the Soviet Union alone, 25 million tons of reeds 
are available annually. Four mills with a total output of over 800 tons per day 
are under construction to produce reed pulp in these regions. 

As yet, other papermaking fibers are reaching commercial production only in 
small quantities. Among these are corn stalks, hemp, abaca, sisal, elephant grass, 
flax, ramie, and kenaf . Continuous pulping investigation of all these materials 
have produced favorable results leading to the conclusion that almost every country 
has some fibrous raw material which can be converted into high quality pulp 
and paper — usually economically. For this reason, it is true that any country with 
an adequate market to support an economically sized mill and with some means 
of financing mill construction, can develop a pulp and paper industry. 

CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 

In making this survey, we have made frequent reference to continuous methods 
of pulping. The technological advance which continuous processing has made 
over traditional batch digesting is evident in the wood pulping field as well as 

213 



the pulping of other fibers. No survey of world pulping developments would be 
complete without recognition of this development. At this moment, probably not 
much more than 10 per cent of the world's pulp from all raw materials is pro- 
duced continuously, but the development is still in its infancy. We must all 
realize that continuous processing is an extremely healthy child which will gain 
strength and even dominance as the years go by. 

There are a number of competing systems for continuous pulping — a situation 
which adds greater impetus to the growth of the concept as a whole. In the 
area of neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulping, continuous processing is already 
dominant. Cold soda pulping is inextricably tied to continuous processing, and 
each year an increasing number of full chemical pulp mills are discarding batch 
digestion in favor of one or another continuous system. In the broad economic 
picture this development contributes to world fiber economy in lower costs of 
pulp production and more efficient utilization of raw materials. 

WASTE PAPER OUTSIDE U.S. 

Our previous discussion of waste paper utilization in the United States should 
not leave the impression that only in this country is secondary fiber a major factor. 
As the rest of the world approaches our level of paper consumption, waste paper 
becomes an increasingly important supplement to virgin fiber everywhere. 

In 1959 Great Britain formed a Waste Paper Utilization Council to stimulate 
progress in the same way the U. S. council functions. The 26.5% contribution of 
waste paper fiber to the total board and paper production of the U.K. in 1959 
equals the U. S. percentage for that year. In general, the same situation prevails 
in all of the large paper consuming countries of Europe. 

Reports delivered last fall at the Tokyo Conference on Pulp & Paper Develop- 
ment in Asia and the Far East stressed the high rate of waste paper recovery 
within the Asian countries and the extensive importation of secondary fibers by 
paper producing countries where virgin fiber production is still negligible. 

CONCLUSION 

The observations offered here have in general supported the premise that the 
forces of population growth and economic progress demand a continuing and 
rapid expansion of the pulp and paper industry throughout the world. To make 
the expansion possible certain factors are at work: technological investigations 
are constantly improving the efficiency of our traditional processes and developing 
new ones. The search for fibrous raw materials is moving swiftly through the 
surrounding forests to the annual crop farms and grasslands beyond. 

The future is not uncomplicated, however. Even though fiber-rich, well estab- 
lished, pulp producing countries cannot possibly satisfy all of the eventual world 
demand, they nevertheless, can be expected to expand their industries more rapidly 
than newly developing countries. The reason for this is financial. The FAO survey 
of world demand issued in I960 points out that for production to keep pace with 
demand in the period from now until 1965 an annual investment of $1,000,- 
214 



000,000 will be necessary. In the following ten years to 1975, when the demand 
will be for 147,400,000 tons of paper and paperboard, the cost of building new 
capacity may very well reach $1,500,000,000 per year. Perhaps half of the needed 
capital will be obtained and spent in North American and Western Europe. In 
the deficit regions of the world, the money promises to be harder to come by, and 
in the final analysis must come as venture capital from established governmental 
and private sources. 

It seems safe to predict that such a vigorous and necessary industry as ours 
will find ways to meet the demands upon it. This means that to progress from 
the present world pulp production of something over 60,000,000 tons, we must 
add new capacity at the rate of over 4,000,000 tons per year to reach the 1975 goal 
of 130,000,000 tons set by FAO demand predictions. 

It is a large undertaking, which I believe will follow these technical and 
commercial trends: 

1. There will be greater emphasis on the utilization of indigenous raw 
materials for pulp making, especially agricultural fibers and other grasses. 

2. In the basic wood growing countries of the world — primarily the United 
States, Canada, Scandinavia, Russia, New Zealand, etc., the stress for a long 
time to come will be on technological advances in wood fiber pulping. 

3. Studies in wood genetics will increase, culminating in the development 
of improved tree varieties to meet the ultimate pulp requirements. 

4. The industry will trend more and more to continuous digestion and 
processing. 

5. The need for greater utilization of waste paper as a raw material will 
produce notable advancements in its collection and processing. 

The entire world pulping industry has an insatiable appetite for technological 
advancement. I believe the ancient theory that the paper produced on the paper 
machines is only as good as the pulp supplied, will be more pronounced in the 
next decade. Let us not for a moment restrain our energies from pulping 
developments. 



215 



Trends and Developments 
in Cellulose Chemistry 

Herman F. Mark 

Director, Polymer Research Institute 

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn 



Cellulose is a generic term which comprises a large number of materials, the 
chemical composition of which varies over a considerable range; they are all 
polymeric and consist of units which belong to the class of monosaccharides. 
Certain members of this family are particularly important, namely those which 
consist essentially of beta — D — glucose and have molecular weights substantially 
exceeding the value of ten thousand. Most of them contain small quantities of 
other monomers such as mannose, galactose, xylose and arabinose but the char- 
acteristic properties of this "cellulose" in the narrower sense are determined by 
the presence of several hundred beta — D — glucose units in the individual 
macromolecules. 

Systematic scientific work on the structure of cellulose started in the early 
years of this century after the principles of sugar chemistry had been established 
by the classical investigations of Emil Fischer and his school. The first problem 
was to establish its chemical composition in view of the many existing isomeric 
monosaccharides. It was approached and solved by the complete hydrolysis of 
cellulose down to the monomer stage and a subsequent identification of the dif- 
ferent monomers and led to the conclusion that "pure" cellulose as it occurs 
in cotton consists essentially of D-glucose units. The next question concerned 
the way in which these units are joined together in the macromolecule ; it was 
much more difficult to solve and it took the work of many prominent scientists 
over a period of almost 20 years to arrive at a satisfactory solution. 

MACROMOLECULAR CHARACTER OF CELLULOSE 

The first concern was to find out whether the individual monosaccharides are 
combined with each other by normal covalent chemical bonds like the acid 
and the alcohol in an ester or the aldehyde and the alcohol in an acetal or 
whether other interactions, such as specific coordination bonds or strong Van 
der Waals' forces are responsible for the insolubility, high softening point and 
unusual mechanical strength of cellulose. Experimental evidence appeared to 
exist in favor of both views and after a period of vigorous and fruitful discussions 
the macromolecular concept emerged around 1928 as the best representation of 
cellulose structure, mainly as a consequence of the work of such eminent scientists 
as Berl, Freudenberg, Haworth, K. H. Meyer, Sponsler, Staudinger and 
Willstater. 

216 



The recognition of cellulose as a macromolecule immediately opened the ques- 
tion about its average molecular weight and its polymolecularity which had to 
be approached essentially with the aid of physical chemical methods such as 
measurements of osmotic pressure, sedimentation and diffusion rate and limiting 
viscosity ratios. The earliest, semiquantitative results of these efforts became avail- 
able in the middle 1920's but it took much longer until substantial agreement 
was reached on the major points and there are many details not yet clarified to 
complete satisfaction even today. A large number of scientists working in many 
laboratories all over the world have contributed to the progress in this field and 
it would be a difficult task to give proper and deserved credit to all of them. 
Suffice it, therefore, in this brief review to mention that the physico-chemical 
studies of cellulose were initiated in the early 1920's by Herzog and Svedberg 
and that the results of the subsequent efforts of many other distinguished chem- 
ists and physicists are adequately described in the classical book of Ott and Spurlin 
on the "Chemistry of Cellulose," which appeared in 1954. 

SUPERMOLECULAR STRUCTURE 

In the course of these studies it became evident that the macromolecules of 
cellulose representing long necklaces of D-glucoses which are chemically bonded 
to each other by 1,4-glucosidic links exhibit, in turn, a strong tendency to assemble 
themselves in aggregates or bundles with a higher or lesser degree of internal 
order. This behavior was explained partly by the relative intrinsic rigidity of 
the chains, partly by the presence of no less than three hydroxyl groups per 
monomeric unit all of which have a distinct capacity for intermolecular bonding. 
The experimental studies of these supermolecular entities became essentially the 
subject of solid state research, which was carried out with filaments and films 
of various origin and which employed as test methods mainly the diffraction of 
X-rays and electrons at large and small angles, the absorption of ultra-violet and 
infrared radiation and the theoretical evaluation of many mechanical measure- 
ments, ranging from dynamic modulus determinations to creep studies at different 
moisture contents. The essential result of all these efforts was the conviction that 
cellulosic samples always contain domains of a very high internal lateral order 
which are surrounded by and embedded in a matrix of less orderly structured 
volume elements. The names micellae and/or crystallites became usage for the 
highly ordered areas, whereas the surrounding portions were referred to as 
amorphous or laterally disordered. This concept was then simplified (and in some 
cases probably oversimplified) by characterizing a given sample by a degree of 
crystallinity, which referred to the weight percentage of the volume elements 
having a perfect or almost perfect lateral order. The remainder was considered to 
be amorphous and it was well appreciated that there exist obvious amorphous areas 
of different degrees of disorder ranging from slightly distorted crystallites to 
domains in which the chain segments are almost completely randomly arranged 
in space. The picture of a crystalline-amorphous character of cellulose (and, for 
that matter, of many other natural and synthetic polymers) was surprisingly suc- 

217 



cessful in explaining most properties of these materials in the solid and moderately 
swollen state. Nevertheless it was obviously only a first step in the right direction 
and, in fact, was later replaced by the more rational concept of a lateral order 
distribution function which recognizes the gradual transition from complete order 
to complete disorder; its study and quantitative establishment represents one of 
the research approaches, which are very much alive today. 

One interesting consequence of the measurements of the molecular weight 
of the cellulose in a given sample and the absolute dimensions of its crystalline 
domains was the notion that one and the same chain (with a length of 8000 A) 
starts somewhere in an amorphous area, goes through a crystallite (the length of 
which is about 1000 A), enters another amorphous area (which may have a 
length of 300-400 A), becomes for about 1000 A a member of another crystallite, 
loses its laterally ordered character in still another amorphous area and so on, 
because the average chain length of the macromolecules (about 5000-10000 AU) 
is substantially larger than the average longitudinal dimensions of the crystallites 
(about 800-1200 AU) and of the amorphous areas (about 300-400 A). Thus: 
in ordinary (low molecular weight) compounds the individual molecules are 
distributed over the different phases (gas, liquid and crystalline) each of which 
is macroscopic and contains very large numbers of molecules (of the order of 
magnitude of 10 16 or more) whereas in polymeric systems the different phases, 
which are submicroscopic and contain only a relatively small number of segments 
of each chain (of the order of magnitude of 10 2 -10 3 ) distribute themselves over 
the individual macromolecules , each of which contains about 10 4 monomer units. 
These chains, therefore, are threaded through the microphases and link them 
into a supermolecular structure, which has the general character of a three dimen- 
sional checkerboard. 

The X-ray and infrared studies also revealed the fact that this checkerboard 
structure can be more or less oriented in respect to the shape of the sample, such , 
as the axis of a fiber or the plane of a film. This orientation influences the 
mechanical and optical properties in a significant manner and can be readily 
controlled by such processes as stretching, drawing, rolling or calendering. 

The two concepts of orientation and lateral order distribution have allowed to 
correlate in a very satisfactory manner supermolecular structure and technical 
behavior ; each of them is still in a process of development both from the point 
of view of experimental methods to establish its degree and of theoretical aspects 
in correlating it with the actual performance of the sample under given conditions. 

SWELLING AND REACTIVITY 

The waterbinding capacity of cellulose is one of its most important properties 
for the industries of cardboard, paper, cellophane, cotton and rayon ; it is essen- 
tially located in the hydroxyl groups which each of the glucose residues has in 
the 2, 3 and 6 position. The two former are secondary OH-groups, the latter 
is a primary group ; the rate and equilbrium of their hydration depends on two 
factors: their intrinsic capacity to bind H 2 molecules and on the degree to 

218 



which they are hydrogen bonded to each other. All available data indicate that 
the hydroxyl groups inside of the crystallites are so completely bonded with 
each other that no water is bonded at all in these areas. The moisture regain of 
cellulose is entirely due to the OH-groups at the surface of the crystallites and 
to those in the amorphous regions. This was established by a striking correlation 
between the degree of lateral order and the rate and equilibrium of moisture 
takeup. It is a significant fact that the same conditions also control the dyestuff 
absorption of cellulosic materials and it was on this basis that, for the first time, 
rational correlations between fiber structure and dyeability of cotton and rayon 
have been developed. Not only could the rate and equilibrium of takeup be 
correlated with the degrees of orientation and crystallinity but even the substan- 
tiveness of certain types of dyestuffs could be rationalized by a particularly good 
fitting of the size and shape of the individual dye molecule to the crystalline fine 
structure of the cellulose lattice. 

While the processes of hydration and dye absorption are controlled by Van der 
Waals forces or hydrogen bonds it has been found that also the chemical re- 
activity of the three glucosidic hydroxyl groups is noticeably influenced by the 
structural conditions of the material. Thus, the reactivity of a sample of cotton 
linters or wood pulp towards xanthation, acetylation or nitration does not only 
depend on its average molecular weight (content of alpha cellulose) but also 
on the accessibility of the hydroxyl groups in the individual glucose units, which, 
in turn, is related to the weight percentage of the amorphous domains. The more 
open the structure the easier it is for the reagents to reach the functional groups 
and to interact with them chemically. If this diffusion step is very rapid, the 
rate of the entire process is controlled by the activation energy of the chemical 
process which occurs at the OH-groups ; if, however, the diffusion is slow, then it 
becomes the rate controlling step and the speed of the entire process depends to 
a large extent on the lateral order distribution function of the material. This 
was one of the first examples to show that in polymeric systems physical structure 
and chemical reactivity depend on each other in a characteristic manner which, 
in general, does not exist with ordinary, low molecular weight substances and 
which is caused by the heterogeneous character of cellulose reactions. In some 
special cases, such as for acetylation and nitration the interplay of physical struc- 
ture and chemical reactivity has been studied in a very systematic and quantitative 
manner with the general result that for processes of this type the intrinsic re- 
activity of a primary hydroxyl group is about twice that of a secondary OH group 
and that the rate of diffusion of any reagent into the unswollen crystalline areas 
is virtually zero. Appropriate swelling, however allows such molecules as acetic 
acid, acetic anhydride or nitric acid to penetrate even into the laterally ordered 
domains and to attach the hydroxyl groups inside of them. 

DERIVATIVES 

Many hundred derivatives of cellulose have been prepared in the course of 
the years by the reaction of its hydroxyl groups with various chemical agents; 

219 



they follow the pattern of the chemistry of ordinary (primary and secondary) 
alcohols and can be classified as ethers, esters, acetals, xanthates and others. 
Only relatively few of them have reached technical prominence and, as a con- 
sequence, commercial production scale. 

Ether type products are prepared by allowing alkali cellulose to react with 
the active chlorine of an organic molecule such as C1CH 3 , C1CH 2 CH 3 or 
ClCH 2 COOH, which leads to the formation of the corresponding ethers. In 
this manner methylcellulose, ethylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose are pre- 
pared, all of which are commercial products with applications in the field of 
watersoluble protective colloids and in the sector of moldable plastics. Other 
compounds of the ether type are obtained by the addition of the primary hydroxyl 
group of the cellulose to an activated aliphatic double bond. The only important 
material of this kind is the addition product of acrylonitrile to cellulose — the 
cyanoethylcellulose, which has found application in the modification of cotton 
and rayon. 

Esther type products are obtained by reacting cellulose with acids and acid 
anhydrides ; by far the most important types are cellulose nitrates and cellulose 
acetates with degrees of substitution ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 with propionates, 
butyrates and mixed esters occupying the second place. These products cover 
a wide range of applications from lacquers to films and from moldable plastics 
to fibers. Degree of substitution, average molecular weight and polymolecularity 
have to be carefully controlled to satisfy the conditions of any special applications. 
It is not very probable that, in the future, another ether or ester of cellulose will 
become of technical importance ; the properties of many of them are well known 
and there is nothing in prospect which would justify their relatively high cost. 

Of great importance are, at present, the xanthates of cellulose which form if 
alkali cellulose is allowed to react with carbon disulfide. They are the basis for 
the production of rayon and cellophane ; their chemistry and technology is highly 
developed and there is not much probability for unexpected new events in their 
preparation and application. 

Other, more complicated derivatives, such as the copperammonium and ferric 
tartrate complexes have played an important and interesting role in the history 
of cellulose chemistry but do not offer any promise for the future from the point 
of view of properties and costs. 

Altogether it appears that the synthesis and application of standard cellulose 
derivatives which are based on normal organic chemistry does not hold much 
promise for the future and it was, therefore, necessary to look out for new fron- 
tiers. They appear to offer themselves by the merger of classical cellulose chem- 
istry with the principles of polymer synthesis, particularly by the formation of 
addition and condensation polymers inside and around a core or backbone of 
cellulose. Present status and future plans for the modification of cellulosic mate- 
rials by grafting, interchain bonding and resin deposition will now be briefly 
reviewed. 

220 



MODIFICATION BY CONDENSATION POLYMERS 

The first attempts to combine cellulose with another polymeric system are almost 
forty years old and started by the treatment of cellulose with phenol-formaldehyde 
and with urea-formaldehyde type resin formers. The principle of all these opera- 
tions is to distribute a relatively low molecular weight resin forming (polymeriz- 
able) system in the highly amorphous areas and in the interfibrillar capillaries of a 
cellulose fiber, such as cotton or rayon and to form the synthetic polymer in situ 
by the condensation of the resin forming ingredients. Two effects are responsible 
for a firm and intimate connection of the two polymeric systems. First, it is 
evident, that the synthetic polymer, as it grows with its branches and crosslinks 
will interpenetrate the macromolecular system of the base polymer and interlace 
with its chain segments so intimately that a very intimate connection can be ex- 
pected. Second, it is also possible that the methylgroups of the growing aldehyde 
condensation product will react chemically with the hydroxyl groups of the cellu- 
lose and form acetalic bonds which link the two polymeric systems by covalent 
bond and another factor which produces a firm and permanent connection 
between them. As long as only very small amounts of the secondary polymer 
(1-2 per cent) are introduced into the cellulose structure the consequences are 
only minor, but as soon as more than 5 per cent resin are deposited in the highly 
accessible domains of the cellulose and in its system of interfibrillar cracks and 
capillaries several changes in the behavior of the treated fibers, yarns or fabrics 
become increasingly evident. 

Since the molecular and supermolecular voids and capillaries are now essen- 
tially filled out and occupied by the resin it is understandable that the diffusion 
of small molecules, such as water or dyestuffs considerably slowed down and, 
as a consequence, the moisture pick up and the dye acceptance of the material is 
reduced. If the fabric is dyed before the deposition of the secondary polymer in 
its supermolecular capillary system the resin treatment causes improved dimen- 
sional stability in the face of environmental moisture changes in the atmosphere. 
The presence of a rather highly crosslinked, three dimensional resin inside of 
the cellulose increases the stiffness of the system, delays the formation of creases 
and pleats and promotes their reversible disappearance because of the improved 
springiness of the polymeric matrix. In fact, the initial effects of most of the 
existing creaseproofing treatments of this type are quite pronounced and the only 
disadvantage of them is that the secondary resins, particularly those made from 
urea or melamine with formaldehyde are somewhat sensitive against hydrolysis 
and are gradually removed in the course of repeated laundering with hydrolyzing 
agents at elevated temperatures. 

Similar to phenol and urea formaldehyde resins it was also possible to deposit 
in the superstructure of cellulose condensation products of the polyester and 
polyamide type. The results are similar as far as the property changes and also 
as far as the sensitivity against hydrolytic action is concerned. 

Recently these earlier efforts have been followed by the incorporation of many 
other condensation type polymers into cellulose, such as epoxide diisocyanate 

221 



and silicone resins, alone or in combination with each other. This has led already 
to many modified cellulose textiles and is going to lead to many more in the 
near future. Particularly interesting are those which exhibit high hydrolytic sta- 
bility such as the epoxy and silicone types. 

GRAFTING OF ADDITION POLYMERS 

The best method to arrive at secondary polymers of very high hydrolytic stabil- 
ity would evidently be the deposition of a vinyl-acrylic or diene type polymer in 
the superstructure of cellulose. This has been accomplished in many cases by 
grafting vinyl type polymers to the cellulose chains. The simplest, although not 
the most efficient, way is to swell the cellulose with a vinyl type monomer or a 
mixture of them and to polymerize these monomers while they are embedded 
between the segments of the cellulose chains. 

Rather extended experience of grafting of vinyl polymers onto each other 
has shown that there results a direct chemical interconnection between the two 
polymers because of chain transfer processes in the course of which a free radical 
site is transferred from a growing chain of one of the two polymers, say polymer 
A, to a chain of the other polymer — say polymer B — with the resulting chemical 
attachment of a branch of poly A to a backbone chain of poly B. 

The same principle has also been applied to cellulose and, in fact, it was 
possible to graft a number of vinyl type polymers, such as styrene, vinylchloride, 
acrylonitrile and butadiene to cellulosic objects by swelling the fiber or film in 
the monomer and initiating the vinyl-type polymerization either with ionizing 
radiation or with free radical forming catalysts, such as peroxides or azodinitriles. 
The disadvantage of this method is the formation of a relatively large amount 
of vinyl-type polymer which is not chemically attached to the cellulosic framework, 
because many chains are started by the fragments of the initiating catalyst and 
terminated by chain transfer or by recombination with chains of the same type. 
Depending upon the experimental conditions it has been found that about half 
of the mass of the vinyl polymer is chemically bonded to the cellulose whereas 
the other half is independent and only mechanically entangled with it. Grafting 
of hydrophobic vinyl-type polymers such as styrene or acrylonitronitrile causes 
very noticeable changes in the moisture absorption and the related dimensional 
stability of the cellulosic base material to.which they are attached. But the presence 
of the independent polymer represents a disadvantage because of the fact that 
it is slowly removed in the course of laundering and pressing. 

One has, therefore, looked for other, more efficient ways to perform the graft- 
ing of an addition polymer to a cellulosic framework and discovered many such 
possibilities. A few of the more important ones will now be enumerated. 

Linear epoxide type addition polymers can be attached to cellulose directly 
through its primary hydroxylgroups. Introduction of only one ethylene oxide to 
each glucose leads to the very hygroscopic hydroxyethyl cellulose which still 
can be defined as a classical cellulose derivative but prolonged reaction of cellulose 
with ethylene — or propylene oxide — causes the formation of longer and longer 

222 



epoxidic chains so that it has been possible to add very high percentages of 
epoxy-type resins through ether bonding to cellulosic samples. The addition of 
such large quantities of foreign material disrupts the original cellulose structure 
and renders the products easily swellable and very soluble in water and many 
organic solvents. If bifunctional epoxides are being added, such as one of the 
Epons or butadiene- diepoxide the systems become curable and can be converted 
into hard, insoluble and infusible masses which also can be visualized as being 
cellulose filled and reinforced Epon resins. 

Many ways have been found to grow vinyl-type addition polymers directly from 
the backbone chains of a cellulosic material. One is to introduce a small amount 
(1-2 per cent) of bromine into the cellulose, swell the brominated system with 
the monomer, the polymer of which one wants to attach and initiate polymerization 
through irradiation with a wavelength which only dissociates the bromine atoms 
from their positions but does not affect other bonds in the system. 

Another way is to introduce a peroxidic or hydroperoxide group into cellulose 
and to produce a free radical site by the dissociation of this group. If one allows, 
for instance, alkalicellulose to react with orthochlorobenzylchloride, one obtains 
the corresponding ether 

CI CI 

Cellulose — ONa + C1CH 2 — / > -► Cell — O — CH 2 - 





which can be readily oxydized to give the peroxide 

a 

Cellulose — O — O — CH 2 - 




which in turn, can be dissociated thermally or with the aid of an appropriate 
redox system to give a free radical type site directly attached to the cellulose 
which is very efficient in initiating additional polymerization of any vinyl — 
or acrylic type monomer. 

Or, one can react paraisopropylbenzoylchloride with alkali cellulose to obtain: 

CH 3 

— C — H 

CH a 



These groups, which are only introduced into the cellulose in small quantities, 
such as 1 or 2 percent, are readily oxydized into hydroperoxyl groups. 

223 




CH 3 

Cellulose — O — / \ _ C — O — OH 

CH 3 

which, in turn, can be dissociated with the aid of a reducing agent such as 
ferrous ion or bisulphite ion to give 

CH 3 

Cellulose — O — / \ _ C — O • + Fe+++ + ~OH 

CH 3 

It can be seen that the only free radical type reactivity remains attached to 
the cellulosic framework and that, therefore, all vinyl polymer chains are grow- 
ing directly from the cellulose without any formation of unattached polymer. 

Still another way to reach the same goal is to convert aminocellulose into the 
aminonitrosoacetate. 

NO 

I 
Cellulose — N — CO — CH 3 

which spontaneously rearranges to the diazoester 

Cellulose — N = N — O — CO — CH 3 

If a cellulose sample containing a small percentage of such groups is swollen 
with a vinyl monomer and then exposed to a low pH, the diazoester splits into 

Cellulose • + N 2 + • OCO — CH 8 

and produces free radicals sites directly at the cellulose which initiate vinyl-type 
polymerization very efficiently. The free acetylradical CH 3 COO« is very efficient 
in picking up a hydrogen atom from the cellulose and produces another free 
radical site directly at the cellulose chains, which grows a chemically attached 
polyvinyl chain. 

This brief review shows that there exist many different ways to graft a wide 
variety of vinyl and acrylic type monomers to cellulose. Some of the resulting 
products have already been studied and have shown interesting properties for 
the application in the field of fibers, plastics and coatings but many other com- 
binations are still possible and it can be expected that much of the future of 
cellulose chemistry lies in the field of grafting. 



224 



Research Needs in the Pulp 
and Paper Industry 

Joseph L. McCarthy 

Professor of Chemical Engineering and Dean of the Graduate School 

University of Washington 



This Fiftieth Birthday is a memorable occasion for the New York State University 
College of Forestry at Syracuse University. May I convey to the College of Forestry, 
its faculty, students, and alumni, sincerest greetings and congratulations from 
the University of Washington, and especially from the University of Washington 
College of Forestry, its faculty, students and alumni, where we also are celebrating 
a birthday of our University— the 100th it happens. May your College, during 
the next fifty years, continue to make the outstanding contributions in teaching 
and research which have marked its now half -century of history. 

It is apparently true that paper was made in China some 2000 years ago, 
from grass by mechanical and microbiological means. But it was only some 100 
years ago when the modern paper and pulp industry began, i.e., when machines 
and chemicals came into substantial use to assist in securing fibers from wood, 
and to remove lignins, and to purify cellulosic fibers. Thus the New York State 
University College of Forestry is now about half as old as the modern pulp and 
paper industry itself. During this half century, developments have occurred in 
all the world around us and, indeed, in the pulp and paper industry also. 

Today I am to speak about the research needs of the pulp and paper industry 
and this is a challenge indeed. In view of all of the achievements we have seen 
in recent years, I am, of course, cautious about saying very much in detail, or very 
much about prospects beyond the immediate future. But although our society 
moves fast, and may well move even faster in the future, we must take courage 
and time to plan and to prepare. The College is to be commended for becoming 
fifty years old and thereby providing an especially good reason for today's 
discussions. 

By my definition, the pulp and paper industry starts with the seed and the 
tree in the forest; proceeds through the growing and harvesting of trees, the 
separating of woody tissue from bark and other materials, the processing of these 
materials into pulp, paper and other cellulose products or other by-products, and 
finally the distributing of these products to the consumer. To conduct these opera- 
tions efficiently and profitably, contributions are required from many persons of 
widely different talents and associations, and I include all of these activities and 
persons when I speak in relation to the research needs of the industry. 

The research needs of the industry are those requirements which need to be 
satisfied to maintain the industry viable as a strong competitor and as a sound 
and profitable contributor of useful products to the people of the nation. 

225 



THE NEED FOR INCREASED RESEARCH ORIENTATION 

For survival and growth, the industry must, of course, continuously reevaluate 
its positions, and then plan and act in accordance with the best conclusions and 
proposals which can be developed from the information at hand. 

All of us, in this room, accept this premise although we may not always act 
upon it. But there was a time, at least during the Middle Ages, when this was 
not generally accepted. One can argue that it was the fairly widespread acceptance 
of this philosophy, beginning at various places in the 12th to the 16th centuries, 
which has contributed to the nearly incredible changes which have occurred during 
the last few centuries. For example, consider world populations. It is estimated 
that at the time of Christ the population of the world was about 200 million 
and this population level apparently remained about constant for the next 1,800 
years. But about 1800 or 1850 the population of the world began to increase 
rapidly — perhaps primarily because of some acceptance of a rational philosophy 
giving rise to higher food production and better medical care — world population 
increased from 200 million in 1800 to about 2 billion in 1930, and now in 1961 
— it is estimated at 3 billion, i.e., a 50 per cent increase in 30 years. A UN Com- 
mittee estimates that the rate will soon reach 2 per cent per year, or about twice 
the rate just before World War II. On this basis, the 3 billion people in the 
world today will become 4 billion by 1980. 

These "aside" remarks about world population, as well as other statistics, of 
course suggest the availability of steadily expanding markets. 

But my point at present is not related to these attractive future market possi- 
bilities, because one can equally well argue that effective application of the 
Rational Method in a different industry may lead to products which may actually 
take markets away from the pulp and paper industry. My part is to emphasize 
the essential importance and power of The Rational Method in relation to all 
phases of our society and to the pulp and paper industry in particular. 

One can say that research is the first step involved in the carrying out of the 
Rational Method and, for research, the dictionary meaning is ". . . careful, 
systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, under- 
taken to establish facts or principles." When this research has produced facts 
or principles by which predictions can be made about the outcome of several 
alternative courses of action, one can then proceed to compare the relative ad- 
vantages or disadvantages associated with these courses of action. According to 
the next step in carrying out the Rational Method, one decides to act, and does 
act, to carry out what appears to be the most desirable course available. 

Thus the Rational Method is based upon two elements: firstly, research to per- 
mit predictions of outcomes to be made, and secondly, decision-making to provide 
for the selection of the "most advantageous" outcome. 

On this very general basis, I would like to suggest that appreciation and under- 
standing of the general nature of the research function and its intimate connec- 
tion to the decision-making function of management is, the one most important 
research need of the pulp and paper industry today. 

226 



THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE DISTRIBUTION IN 
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 

Recognition of this fact-finding and forecasting role of research makes clear the 
need for research activity and personnel in nearly all fields of interest in the 
pulp and paper industry, e.g., raw materials, processing, product qualities, mate- 
rials of construction, power requirements, engineering designs, cost analysis, 
market forecasts, financial forecasts, and even personnel performance predictions. 

Research in all these fields, and others too, is needed but some research fore- 
casts are more urgently required than others for decision-making in favor of 
company developments and profit. 

So a company maintains its own laboratory organization in which what I shall 
call Company Research is conducted to obtain specific and confidential perform- 
forecasts of immediate and urgent competitive interest. Other interests of a com- 
pany may be less weighted with competitive status and may be common with 
other companies. Research reflecting these interests, I shall call Industry Research 
and this is usually conducted in research institutes or universities. Still other 
interests of a company may be longer term and may be common with many other 
companies in a variety of different industries or other units of society and may 
provide a good vehicle for teaching students. These general interests are reflected 
in today's University Research. 

Of course there is often overlapping among the activities conducted as Com- 
pany Research, Industry Research, and University Research, but each of these is 
different and significant. Thus I think that another important research need of 
the pulp and paper industry is the need to recognize to an increased degree the 
separate role of each of these three types of research, and to support each of the 
three in a clearly planned and balanced manner so that their respective contribu- 
tions will continue to be available in the future. 

POSTULATES FOR RESEARCH 

Research is expensive and time consuming, so careful selection must be made 
of the particular fields in which research is to be conducted. Certain objectives of 
research activity can be tentatively specified from the viewpoint of the pulp and 
paper industry, but the selection of research objectives is subject to continuing 
reexamination in the light of new findings and developments. 

Some general postulates which certainly bear upon research needs in the pulp 
and paper industry seem to me to be the following: 

Postulate I — Population Growth in the United States will continue at a substan- 
tial rate. 

Thus market potential continues to expand, but these new markets must be 
won and held against competitors. 

Postulate II — The costs of scientific and technical and especially of research man- 
power will steadily increase. 

The increasing mechanization of industry is requiring increased training and 
skills and intelligence in the persons engaged in industrial work. Research per- 

227 



I 



sonnel of the high qupality must be recruited and maintained to achieve the re- 
search needs of the pulp and paper industry. 

Postulate HI — The pace of scientific discovery and of engineering and techno- 
logical application will continue to be rapid. 

We heard again this morning that 90 per cent of all the scientists ever born 
are still alive today. Thus we emphasize the continuing growth in supply of 
scientifically trained people. But, this same percentage was apparently still appro- 
priate in 1680, the time of Sir Isaac Newton. We may expect the tempo to 
continue to be rapid and perhaps further increase, and appreciation of this 
trend seems vital. 

Postulate IV — Inter-industry competition will increase. 

In recent years we have seen steady extension in the competition between two 
or more industries that used to be regarded as unrelated. We have seen the 
partial displacement of glass milk bottles by paper cartons, of glassine and cello- 
phane films by polethylene and other films, and of wooden boxes by paper card- 
board boxes. We see the fierce battle being waged between rayon and nylon 
for the tire cord market. This inter-industry competition will certainly steadily 
increase. 

Postulate V — Foreign competition for pulp and paper markets will increase. 

Because of increasing activity overseas in the pulp and paper industry of foreign 
countries, increased competition seems inevitable. 

Postulate VI— The capabilities of high speed calculating machines will steadily 
increase. 

I submit that man's capacity to do high speed machine calculation is revolu- 
tionary in its implications for our society and particularly for industrial operations, 
research and management. 

Postulate VII— Power may become relatively much cheaper in the future than is 
now the case. 

It is true that nuclear engines are not yet generally competitive, but competitive 
prices for fission type power are being approached. The real promise of cheap 
power lies in the nuclear fusion type power which is probably ten to fifty years 
away. But things of this sort always seem to arrive sooner than expected, so we 
should expect changes and plan for it. 

These then are some postulates which certainly influence the selection of, and 
the possibility of achievement of, the ten very general research needs which I 
shall now suggest in order of process interest and with particular reference to 
the next ten years. 

TEN RESEARCH NEEDS FOR TEN YEARS 

Need I: To establish a much better understanding of the relationships between 
the properties of pulp and paper industry consumer products with properties of 
the intermediates and with the original woody tissue and the cellulose, lignin 
and other components therein. 

228 



Until recently, not much has been done about this need, I suppose, because 
an individual company does not usually have much control over the particular 
species or individual trees available in its forest lands, and also because of the 
large influence of process variations on the characteristics of the final products. 
However, to move seriously now in the direction of tree breeding, and to take 
advantage of the recent achievements in the field of genetics, some basic informa- 
tion seems to me to be quite urgently needed. 

But, if one is to go in for tree breeding, then what kind of tree does one want 
to breed? What species and variety and individual? To breed for what? Are we 
now speaking of cellulose produced per acre per year, or of fiber length or of 
high or low percentage lignin, or high or low percentage of cellulose, or of 
particular characteristics within the cellulose such as angle of spiral and assembly 
of fibrils in a cell wall, etc. Answers to questions of this sort must be provided 

soon. 

Industry Research, aided by University Research, will provide these answers, 
and Company Research will point the way to specific applications within each 
industrial company. 
Need II— To establish knowledge and practice for effective pulp and paper tree 

breeding. 

The natural next level of development of forestry techniques, beyond all the 
steps of protection of forests from fire and organisms and beyond the establishment 
of sustained yield and optimum harvesting programs, seems to be the breeding 
and planting of particular species and types of trees thought to be potentially useful 
and most profitable for maintaining in the forests of pulp and paper industry. 

Radiation techniques are now well established for speeding up mutation rates 
but the evaluation of mutants must be established. Also needed are ways to 
decrease the time lag between the actual step of mutation and the step of evalua- 
tion of the fiber out of the raw material and the finished fiber. How long must it 
take for a mutant seed to grow sufficiently into a young tree to permit the tree 
to be evaluated by its utility in the field. Whatever the present answer is, it is 
obviously much too long. 

This breeding research seems particularly appropriate to conduct as generalized 
Industry Research and University Research. 

Need III — To expand knowledge of how to grow trees. 

A tree is an organism which has a wonderful power to collect energy from the 
sunlight and use this to convert carbon dioxide from the air into the substance 
of the tree with the help of water, metals and other substances available from the 
earth. Of the very large number of factors influencing tree growth, it seems to 
me that there is an immediate research need to establish more closely the require- 
ments and relative advantage of use of various chemicals which may function as 
"fertilizers" or to satisfy "deficiencies" in growth of trees. This is, of course, a 
complex problem in chemistry, diffusion, and the characteristics of soils. But it 
is also a research which must include economic evaluations. Thus, here, it is 

229 



especially necessary to conduct Company Research, Industry Research and Uni- 
versity Research in a closely correlated fashion. 

Need IV — To substantially improve techniques of tree harvesting. 

Here is an immediate important research area in a field which started out with 
use of power provided by men and horses and elephants, and now, in the U. S. } 
at least, is extensively mechanized. But as one who is a professional engineer, 
it seems to me that surely much more can be done. I understand that tests are 
underway on a machine which permits the continuous harvesting of trees of 
modest age and this appears to be a promising approach in this field. It also 
seems to me that much needs to be done to improve the methods for mechanically 
separating the woody tissue, the bark tissue, and indeed the needles. 

Research on harvesting is apparently primarily of the Company and Industrial 
type because of its immediate relationship with specific processing costs. 

Need V — To improve mechanical and semi-chemical pulping and the properties 
and uses of mechanical pulps. 

Mechanical and semi-chemical pulp production and transformations with 
emphasis upon ways to marry fibers to plastics and polymers seems to me to be a 
research field which will be of continuing significance. 

Need VI — To improve chemical pulping, and the properties and uses of cellulose 
for papers. 

The long separation of sulfite from Kraft procedures now appears to be dis- 
appearing with the apparent evolution of one more or less standard but highly 
versatile continuous chemical pulping process whereby desired properties in the 
product can be obtained by modification in operating conditions. 

As Company and Industry Research proceed to complete this process problem, 
it may be well to keep in mind that although the use of paper has a two thousand 
year history, there are new strong influences pressing toward the introduction 
of new materials and alternative techniques of transmission and preservation of 
the idea and the word. The world's libraries are increasing at tremendous rates 
such that today at least the universities can hardly afford to keep the pace in 
providing capital monies for construction, and operating monies for librarians 
and related materials. The time is ripe for some new developments, and the paper 
industry may well find serious competition coming to it within the next several 
decades. Paper in the field of containers, wrapping paper, may likewise find 
substantial competition coming from other chemicals synthesized into films of 
specialized properties. 

Need VII — To improve chemical pulping and the properties and uses of cellulose 
for chemical purposes. 

It seems to me that there is great need for research which would lead to major 
simplification of the long line of processes starting with the wood and ending 
up with chemical cellulose pulps and finally with cellophanes or cellulose deriva- 
tives. Can we expect a long survival for such a complicated series of processes 

230 



with the attendant costs and difficulties in control? Surely something can be done 
to streamline all this into one straight line system with wood chips or sawdust 
coming in one side of the process and cellulose rayons, textile materials, or films, 
or plastics and other useful materials coming out the other side. 

Another research need is for much more information about the characteristics 
of cellulose fibers as well as regenerated celluloses and cellulose derivatives. 
Properties of regenerated cellulose film and derivatives seem in urgent need of 
improvement. 

The research needs in these fields seem to me to be of outstandinng urgency 
for the very preservation of major industrial activity. Company, Industry and 
University Research are all needed now. 

Need VIII — To improve knowledge and uses of by-products of chemical pulping. 

Consideration of the non-cellulose by-products of chemical pulping begins with 
a heritage of pollution which is today still of importance around the world. Steps 
have been taken in the Kraft industry and are now being developed for the sulfite 
pulp industry to provide for at least partial avoidance of pollution by collecting 
and burning the non-cellulosic wood components. This utilization of the non- 
cellulose components of wood for fuel is certainly a desirable step forward, 
but we may soon find that nuclear fuel sources are cheaper. 

We should vigorously continue to conduct research directed toward the de- 
velopment of higher grade uses for the non-cellulosic wood components. Lignin is, 
of course, the main by-product and much more fundamental knowledge about 
lignin is still urgently needed from University and Industry laboratories. However, 
vigorous application research in Company Laboratories is also required so lignin 
products can finally be made and sold in a competitive market on a large scale, 
and at a profit. To a lesser degree, one may make similar remarks about the 
non-cellulose sugar components of the wood, i.e., what is needed is more Uni- 
versity and Industry Research on the nature and reactions and characteristics of 
these compounds, as well as Company Research in individual company laboratories 
looking toward particular uses and markets. 

Need IX — To improve data processing procedures to aid for pulp and paper 
industry management. 

The advent of machines for recording data and permitting rapid analysis 
of very large amounts of data provides opportunities for improvements in manage- 
ment procedures which should perhaps be exploited more generally throughout 
the pulp and paper industry. 

Production, costs, markets, designs, inventory, forests, engineering and per- 
sonnel can now be studied effectively on a basis wholly different from that possible 
ten or even five years ago. He who does not intensify the pace of internal or 
Company Research on data processing and management decision-making methods 
will suffer dearly during the next ten years. 

231 



Need X — To improve research personnel, organization, and management in the 
pulp and paper industry. 

The pulp and paper industry is perhaps behind many other industries in the 
use of research personnel and organizations within the industry and outside the 
industry to advance its purposes. Only since World War II has there been de- 
veloped in a number of major companies of the pulp and paper industry research 
personnel and organizations of real stature and promise. An important research 
need of the industry is the steady increase in quality and number of research 
personnel and in the organization and effective use of those personnel. The uni- 
versities strive to provide outstanding able candidates but the industry must 
provide real opportunities and rewards for these men. 

These then are my ten research needs. 

THE YEARS BEYOND 

In conclusion, let me remark on some longer term research prospects which 
may well be fanciful, but stimulating. 

In recent years truly astounding advances have been made in the understanding 
of the functioning of living organisms. Now established in a fairly firm fashion are 
a number of the basic metabolic cycles. Inheritance and mutation phenomena are 
now being studied with potentially very great fruitfulness in the fields of genetics. 
Knowledge of molecular structure of biologically significant molecules is being 
secured at an astonishingly rapid rate. These findings will all certainly influence 
genetics and breeding as applied to trees. 

Related to these developments in genetics are complimentary developments in 
biochemistry and other fields of molecular biology. The structure and action of 
enzymes, the procedures of physiology and pathology are being found out. 

Some day soon it may well be possible to synthesize cellulose molecules without 
the need for the tree itself. One can visualize photosynthetic activity conceivably 
using isolated enzymes or synthetic enzymes functioning under synthetic sunlight 
(perhaps tens or hundreds of times as strong as natural light), providing for 
conversion of carbon dioxide into selected sugars, and these in turn being aligned 
by enzymes means into cellulose and other polymers or derivatives. Assembly of 
cellulose molecules into fiberils and fibers may be a later development. 

What man can dream — he can very often do — and soon. 

Man's research need is the need to know today, tomorrow, and the day after 
tomorrow too! 



232 



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